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Detection of differentially regulated genes has been severely hampered by technical limitations. In an effort to overcome these problems, the PCR-coupled subtractive process of representational difference analysis (RDA) [Lisitsyn, N. et al. (1993) Science 259, 946-951] has been adapted for use with cDNA. In a model system, RAG-1 and RAG-2, the genes(More)
Somatic hypermutation introduces point mutations into immunoglobulin genes in germinal centre B cells during an immune response. The reaction is initiated by cytosine deamination by the activation-induced deaminase (AID) and completed by error-prone processing of the resulting uracils by mismatch and base excision repair factors. Somatic hypermutation(More)
The vast repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors is generated, in part, by V(D)J recombination, a series of genomic rearrangements that occur specifically in developing lymphocytes. The recombination activating gene, RAG-1, which is a gene expressed exclusively in maturing lymphoid cells, was previously isolated. RAG-1 inefficiently induced V(D)J(More)
The RAG-1 (recombination activating gene-1) genomic locus, which activates V(D)J recombination when introduced into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, was isolated by serial genomic transfections of oligonucleotide-tagged DNA. A genomic walk spanning 55 kb yielded a RAG-1 genomic probe that detects a single 6.6-7.0 kb mRNA species in transfectants and pre-B and pre-T(More)
The critical initial step in V(D)J recombination, binding of RAG1 and RAG2 to recombination signal sequences flanking antigen receptor V, D, and J gene segments, has not previously been characterized in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that RAG protein binding occurs in a highly focal manner to a small region of active chromatin encompassing Ig kappa and Tcr(More)
During V(D)J recombination, RAG1 and RAG2 cleave DNA adjacent to highly conserved recombination signals, but nothing is known about the protein-DNA complexes that exist after cleavage. Using a properly regulated in vitro V(D)J cleavage system, together with nuclease sensitivity, mobility shift, and immunoprecipitation experiments, we provide evidence that a(More)
The recombination activating genes, RAG-1 and RAG-2, are likely to encode components of the V(D)J site-specific recombination machinery. We report here the detection of low levels of the RAG-1 transcript in the murine central nervous system by polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and Northern blot analyses. In contrast, an authentic RAG-2(More)
The RAG1 endonuclease, together with its cofactor RAG2, is essential for V(D)J recombination but is a potent threat to genome stability. The sources of RAG1 mis-targeting and the mechanisms that have evolved to suppress it are poorly understood. Here, we report that RAG1 associates with chromatin at thousands of active promoters and enhancers in the genome(More)
Immunoglobulin and T-cell-receptor genes are assembled from component gene segments in developing lymphocytes by a site-specific recombination reaction, V(D)J recombination. The proteins encoded by the recombination-activating genes, RAG1 and RAG2, are essential in this reaction, mediating sequence-specific DNA recognition of well-defined recombination(More)
Cohesin enables post-replicative DNA repair and chromosome segregation by holding sister chromatids together from the time of DNA replication in S phase until mitosis. There is growing evidence that cohesin also forms long-range chromosomal cis-interactions and may regulate gene expression in association with CTCF, mediator or tissue-specific transcription(More)