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Somatic hypermutation introduces point mutations into immunoglobulin genes in germinal centre B cells during an immune response. The reaction is initiated by cytosine deamination by the activation-induced deaminase (AID) and completed by error-prone processing of the resulting uracils by mismatch and base excision repair factors. Somatic hypermutation(More)
The vast repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors is generated, in part, by V(D)J recombination, a series of genomic rearrangements that occur specifically in developing lymphocytes. The recombination activating gene, RAG-1, which is a gene expressed exclusively in maturing lymphoid cells, was previously isolated. RAG-1 inefficiently induced V(D)J(More)
The recombination activating genes, RAG-1 and RAG-2, are likely to encode components of the V(D)J site-specific recombination machinery. We report here the detection of low levels of the RAG-1 transcript in the murine central nervous system by polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and Northern blot analyses. In contrast, an authentic RAG-2(More)
During V(D)J recombination, RAG1 and RAG2 cleave DNA adjacent to highly conserved recombination signals, but nothing is known about the protein-DNA complexes that exist after cleavage. Using a properly regulated in vitro V(D)J cleavage system, together with nuclease sensitivity, mobility shift, and immunoprecipitation experiments, we provide evidence that a(More)
The critical initial step in V(D)J recombination, binding of RAG1 and RAG2 to recombination signal sequences flanking antigen receptor V, D, and J gene segments, has not previously been characterized in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that RAG protein binding occurs in a highly focal manner to a small region of active chromatin encompassing Ig kappa and Tcr(More)
The RAG-1 (recombination activating gene-1) genomic locus, which activates V(D)J recombination when introduced into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, was isolated by serial genomic transfections of oligonucleotide-tagged DNA. A genomic walk spanning 55 kb yielded a RAG-1 genomic probe that detects a single 6.6-7.0 kb mRNA species in transfectants and pre-B and pre-T(More)
Immunoglobulin and T-cell-receptor genes are assembled from component gene segments in developing lymphocytes by a site-specific recombination reaction, V(D)J recombination. The proteins encoded by the recombination-activating genes, RAG1 and RAG2, are essential in this reaction, mediating sequence-specific DNA recognition of well-defined recombination(More)
Cohesin enables post-replicative DNA repair and chromosome segregation by holding sister chromatids together from the time of DNA replication in S phase until mitosis. There is growing evidence that cohesin also forms long-range chromosomal cis-interactions and may regulate gene expression in association with CTCF, mediator or tissue-specific transcription(More)
In developing lymphocytes, the recombination activating gene endonuclease cleaves DNA between V, D, or J coding and recombination signal (RS) sequences to form hairpin coding and blunt RS ends, which are fused to form coding and RS joins. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) factors repair DNA double strand breaks including those induced during VDJ(More)
Somatic hypermutation (SH) generates point mutations within rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of activated B cells, providing genetic diversity for the affinity maturation of antibodies. SH requires the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) protein and transcription of the mutation target sequence, but how the Ig gene specificity of mutations is(More)