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Multiple genome rearrangement methodology facilitates the inference of animal phylogeny from gene orders on the mitochondrial genome. The breakpoint distance is preferable to other, highly correlated but computationally more difficult, genomic distances when applied to these data. A number of theories of metazoan evolution are compared to phylogenies(More)
This paper represents a comprehensive study of English loanword usage in five diverse francophone neighborhoods in the national capital region of Canada. Twenty thousand loan tokens extracted from informal conversations with 120 speakers are analyzedfor degree oflinguistic integration into French and social assimilation by the francophone community.(More)
BACKGROUND Genome median and genome halving are combinatorial optimization problems that aim at reconstructing ancestral genomes as well as the evolutionary events leading from the ancestor to extant species. Exploring complexity issues is a first step towards devising efficient algorithms. The complexity of the median problem for unichromosomal genomes(More)
Duplicated genes are an important source of new protein functions and novel developmental and physiological pathways. Whereas most models for fate of duplicated genes show that they tend to be rapidly lost, models for pathway evolution suggest that many duplicated genes rapidly acquire novel functions. Little empirical evidence is available, however, for(More)
Mitochondria, organelles specialized in energy conservation reactions in eukaryotic cells, have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts whose closest known relatives are the rickettsial group of alpha-proteobacteria. Because characterized mitochondrial genomes vary markedly in structure, it has been impossible to infer from them the initial form of the(More)
BACKGROUND Genome amplification through duplication or proliferation of transposable elements has its counterpart in genome reduction, by elimination of DNA or by gene inactivation. Whether loss is primarily due to excision of random length DNA fragments or the inactivation of one gene at a time is controversial. Reduction after whole genome duplication(More)
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The problem of choosing an alignment of two or more nucleotide sequences is particularly difficult for nucleic acids, such as 5S ribosomal RNA, which do not code for protein and for which secondary structure is unknown. Given a set of 'costs' for the various types of replacement mutations and for base insertion or deletion, we present a dynamic programming(More)