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Multiple genome rearrangement methodology facilitates the inference of animal phylogeny from gene orders on the mitochondrial genome. The breakpoint distance is preferable to other, highly correlated but computationally more difficult, genomic distances when applied to these data. A number of theories of metazoan evolution are compared to phylogenies(More)
Motivated by the problem in computational biology of reconstructing the series of chromosome inversions by which one organism evolved from another, we consider the problem of computing the shortest series of reversals that transform one permutation to another. The permutations describe the order of genes on corresponding chromosomes, and a reversal takes an(More)
This paper represents a comprehensive study of English loanword usage in five diverse francophone neighborhoods in the national capital region of Canada. Twenty thousand loan tokens extracted from informal conversations with 120 speakers are analyzedfor degree oflinguistic integration into French and social assimilation by the francophone community.(More)
The inference of genome rearrangement requires detailed gene maps of related species. For most multichromosomal species, however , knowledge of chromosomal assignment of genes outstrips mapping data. Comparison of these species is thus a question of comparing sets of syntenic genes, without any gene order or gene orientation information. Given synteny data(More)
Multiple alignment of macromolecular sequences generalizes from N = 2 to N > or = 3 the comparison of N sequences which have diverged through the local processes of insertion, deletion and substitution. Gene-order sequences diverge through non-local genome rearrangement processes such as inversion (or reversal) and transposition. In this paper we show which(More)
BACKGROUND Genome median and genome halving are combinatorial optimization problems that aim at reconstructing ancestral genomes as well as the evolutionary events leading from the ancestor to extant species. Exploring complexity issues is a first step towards devising efficient algorithms. The complexity of the median problem for unichromosomal genomes(More)