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Prion-like propagation of tau aggregation might underlie the stereotyped progression of neurodegenerative tauopathies. True prions stably maintain unique conformations ("strains") in vivo that link structure to patterns of pathology. We now find that tau meets this criterion. Stably expressed tau repeat domain indefinitely propagates distinct amyloid(More)
BACKGROUND The hemoglobin threshold at which postoperative red-cell transfusion is warranted is controversial. We conducted a randomized trial to determine whether a higher threshold for blood transfusion would improve recovery in patients who had undergone surgery for hip fracture. METHODS We enrolled 2016 patients who were 50 years of age or older, who(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was designed to compare intraoperative fluoroscopic stress testing, static radiographs, and biomechanical criteria for the diagnosis of distal tibiofibular syndesmotic instability associated with external rotation type ankle fractures. DESIGN Prospective, consecutive series. SETTING Academic level 1 trauma center. (More)
Tau amyloid assemblies propagate aggregation from the outside to the inside of a cell, which may mediate progression of the tauopathies. The critical size of Tau assemblies, or "seeds," responsible for this activity is currently unknown, but this could be important for the design of effective therapies. We studied recombinant Tau repeat domain (RD) and Tau(More)
Mammalian oocyte activation is mediated by cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations initiated upon delivery of a putative 'sperm factor' by the fertilizing sperm. Previous studies suggest the identity of this sperm factor as the testis-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ). Recently, a post-acrosomal sheath WW domain-binding protein (PAWP) has been proposed(More)
Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity is a clinical condition that, although uncommon, is seen fairly regularly in modern orthopedic practice. The pathophysiology of the disorder has been extensively described and is well known to physicians who care for patients with musculoskeletal injuries. The diagnosis, however, is often difficult to make.(More)
OBJECTIVE Screw fixation of the injured syndesmosis restores stability but may reduce motion. The purpose of this study is to determine whether functional outcomes and radiographic results after ankle fracture are affected by the status of the syndesmosis screw. DESIGN Retrospective review of a consecutive clinical series. SETTING Level 1 academic(More)
In designing a study protocol relating to hip fracture treatment and outcomes, it is important to select appropriate outcome instruments. Before beginning the process of instrument selection, investigators must gain a comprehensive understanding of the condition of interest and have a thorough knowledge of the expected benefits and harms of the proposed(More)
BACKGROUND Although surgeons acknowledge the importance of irrigating open fracture wounds, the choice of irrigating fluid and delivery pressure remains controversial. Our objective was to clarify current opinion with regard to the irrigation of open fracture wounds. METHODS We used a cross-sectional survey and a sample-to-redundancy strategy to examine(More)
Increasingly, evidence argues that many neurodegenerative diseases, including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), are caused by prions, which are alternatively folded proteins undergoing self-propagation. In earlier studies, PSP prions were detected by infecting human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells expressing a tau fragment [TauRD(LM)] fused to yellow(More)