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This paper describes a new framework for processing images by example, called &#8220;image analogies.&#8221; The framework involves two stages: a <i>design phase</i>, in which a pair of images, with one image purported to be a &#8220;filtered&#8221; version of the other, is presented as &#8220;training data&#8221;; and an <i>application phase</i>, in which(More)
We describe an interactive, computer-assisted framework for combining parts of a set of photographs into a single composite picture, a process we call "digital photomontage." Our framework makes use of two techniques primarily: graph-cut optimization, to choose good seams within the constituent images so that they can be combined as seamlessly as possible;(More)
This paper proposes a new Bayesian framework for solving the matting problem, i.e. extracting a foreground element from a background image by estimating an opacity for each pixel of the foreground element. Our approach models both the foreground and background color distributions with spatially-varying sets of Gaussians, and assumes a fractional blending of(More)
We present a method for searching in an image database using a query image that is similar to the intended target. The query image may be a hand-drawn sketch or a (potentially low-quality) scan of the image to be retrieved. Our searching algorithm makes use of multiresolution wavelet decompositions of the query and database images. The coefficients of these(More)
We present new techniques for creating photorealistic textured 3D facial models from photographs of a human subject, and for creating smooth transitions between different facial expressions by morphing between these different models. Starting from several uncalibrated views of a human subject, we employ a user-assisted technique to recover the camera poses(More)
We describe a new vector-based primitive for creating smooth-shaded images, called the <i>diffusion curve</i>. A diffusion curve partitions the space through which it is drawn, defining different colors on either side. These colors may vary smoothly along the curve. In addition, the sharpness of the color transition from one side of the curve to the other(More)
Environment matting is a generalization of traditional bluescreen matting. By photographing an object in front of a sequence of structured light backdrops, a set of approximate light-transport paths through the object can be computed. The original environment matting research chose a middle ground&#8212;using a moderate number of photographs to produce(More)
This paper presents a paradigm for automatically generating complete camera specifications for capturing events in virtual 3D environments in real-time. We describe a fully implemented system, called the Virtual Cinematographer, and demonstrate its application in a virtual " party " setting. Cinematographic expertise, in the form of film idioms, is encoded(More)