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This paper describes a new framework for processing images by example, called &#8220;image analogies.&#8221; The framework involves two stages: a <i>design phase</i>, in which a pair of images, with one image purported to be a &#8220;filtered&#8221; version of the other, is presented as &#8220;training data&#8221;; and an <i>application phase</i>, in which(More)
We describe an interactive, computer-assisted framework for combining parts of a set of photographs into a single composite picture, a process we call "digital photomontage." Our framework makes use of two techniques primarily: graph-cut optimization, to choose good seams within the constituent images so that they can be combined as seamlessly as possible;(More)
This paper proposes a new Bayesian framework for solving the matting problem, i.e. extracting a foreground element from a background image by estimating an opacity for each pixel of the foreground element. Our approach models both the foreground and background color distributions with spatiallyvarying sets of Gaussians, and assumes a fractional blending of(More)
We present new techniques for creating photorealistic textured 3D facial models from photographs of a human subject, and for creating smooth transitions between different facial expressions by morphing between these different models. Starting from several uncalibrated views of a human subject, we employ a user-assisted technique to recover the camera poses(More)
This paper describes the principles of traditional pen-and-ink illustration, and shows how a great number of them can be implemented as part of an automated rendering system. It introduces &#8220;stroke textures,&#8221; which can be used for achieving both texture and tone with line drawing. Stroke textures also allow resolution-dependent rendering, in(More)
This paper describes a new framework for <i>video matting,</i> the process of pulling a high-quality alpha matte and foreground from a video sequence. The framework builds upon techniques in natural image matting, optical flow computation, and background estimation. User interaction is comprised of garbage matte specification if background estimation is(More)
We present a solution to the aliasing problem for shadow algorithms that use depth maps. The solution is based on a new filtering technique called percentage closer filtering. In addition to antialiasing, the improved algorithm provides soft shadow boundaries that resemble penumbrae. We describe the new algorithm in detail, demonstrate the effects of its(More)