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Angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NAD(P)H oxidases. The upstream signaling mechanisms by which Ang II activates these oxidases are unclear but may include protein kinase C, tyrosine kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and Rac, a small molecular weight(More)
BACKGROUND Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular pathologies. NAD(P)H oxidases (Noxes) are major sources of reactive oxygen species in the vessel wall, but the importance of individual Nox homologues in specific layers of the vascular wall is unclear. Nox1 upregulation has been implicated in cardiovascular(More)
Angiotensin II activates a variety of signaling pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), including the MAPKs and Akt, both of which are required for hypertrophy. However, little is known about the relationship between these kinases or about the upstream activators of Akt. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the reactive oxygen species(More)
Disruption of the alveolar septal barrier leads to acute lung injury, patchy alveolar flooding, and hypoxemia. Although calcium entry into endothelial cells is critical for loss of barrier integrity, the cation channels involved in this process have not been identified. We hypothesized that activation of the vanilloid transient receptor potential channel(More)
Hypertension, the result of a sustained increase in vascular peripheral resistance, is partly due to vascular remodeling and increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity. Stimulation of heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors by various contractile agonists activates intracellular signaling molecules to result in an increase in cytosolic Ca++ and the subsequent(More)
Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high-salt (HS, 4.0% NaCl) or a low-salt (LS, 0.4% NaCl) diet for 3 days (short-term) or 4-8 weeks (chronic). Vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II and norepinephrine were determined in isolated skeletal muscle resistance arteries and in distal arterioles of the in situ cremaster muscle. Myogenic responses to(More)
Smooth muscle cell migration in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a key event in several vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis and restenosis. PDGF increases intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the ROS sensitivity of migration and of the signaling pathways leading to(More)
In hypertension, increased peripheral resistance maintains elevated levels of arterial blood pressure. The increase in peripheral resistance results, in part, from abnormal constrictor and dilator responses and vascular remodeling. In this review, we consider four cellular signaling pathways as possible explanations for these abnormal vascular responses:(More)
Protein levels and polymorphisms of p22(phox) have been suggested to modulate vascular NAD(P)H oxidase activity and vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We sought to determine whether increasing p22(phox) expression would alter vascular ROS production and hemodynamics by targeting p22(phox) expression to smooth muscle in transgenic (Tg)(More)
We have previously implicated calcium entry through stretch-activated cation channels in initiating the acute pulmonary vascular permeability increase in response to high peak inflation pressure (PIP) ventilation. However, the molecular identity of the channel is not known. We hypothesized that the transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) channel(More)