David S Wales

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Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than(More)
There is considerable interest in both Europe and the USA in the effects of microbiological fouling on stainless steels in potable water. However, little is known about the formation and effects of biofilms, on stainless steel in potable water environments, particularly in turbulent flow regimes. Results are presented on the development of biofilms on(More)
Many microfungi contain chitin/chitosan as an integral part of the cell wall structure. The binding of toxic and heavy metal ions by chitosan or partly deacetylated chitin is a direct consequence of the base strength of the primary amine group and is most effective for those metals that form complexes with ammonia. Of the microfungi studied, hyphae from(More)
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