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From October 4 to November 2, 2001, the first 10 confirmed cases of inhalational anthrax caused by intentional release of Bacillus anthracis were identified in the United States. Epidemiologic investigation indicated that the outbreak, in the District of Columbia, Florida, New Jersey, and New York, resulted from intentional delivery of B. anthracis spores(More)
Meningococcus, an obligate human bacterial pathogen, remains a worldwide and devastating cause of epidemic meningitis and sepsis. However, advances have been made in our understanding of meningococcal biology and pathogenesis, global epidemiology, transmission and carriage, host susceptibility, pathophysiology, and clinical presentations. Approaches to(More)
The biological response to endotoxin mediated through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD-2 receptor complex is directly related to lipid A structure or configuration. Endotoxin structure may also influence activation of the MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathways of TLR4. To address this possibility, human macrophage-like cell lines (THP-1,(More)
Pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis isolates contain a polysaccharide capsule that is the main virulence determinant for this bacterium. Thirteen capsular polysaccharides have been described, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has enabled determination of the structure of capsular polysaccharides responsible for serogroup specificity. Molecular(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has risen in recent years after the introduction of new macrolides and their increased use. We assessed emergence of macrolide-resistant invasive S pneumoniae disease in Atlanta, GA, USA, before and after the licensing, in February 2000, of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate(More)
Neisseria meningitidis expresses a heterogeneous population of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) inner cores variously substituted with alpha1-3-linked glucose and O-3, O-6, and O-7 linked phosphoethanolamine (PEA), as well as glycine, attached to HepII. Combinations of these attachments to the LOS inner core represent immunodominant epitopes that are being(More)
Meningococcal lipopoly(oligo)saccharide (LOS) is a major inflammatory mediator of fulminant meningococcal sepsis and meningitis. Highly purified wild-type meningococcal LOS and LOS from genetically defined mutants of Neisseria meningitidis that contained specific mutations in LOS biosynthesis pathways were used to confirm that meningococcal LOS activation(More)
Understanding the basis of sporadic (endemic) meningococcal disease may be critical to prevention of meningococcal epidemic outbreaks and to understanding fluctuations in incidence. Active, prospective, population-based surveillance and molecular epidemiologic techniques were used to study sporadic serogroup C meningococcal disease in a population of 2.34(More)
During October and November 2001, public health authorities investigated 11 patients with inhalational anthrax related to a bioterrorism attack in the United States. Formalin-fixed samples from 8 patients were available for pathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) study using monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus anthracis cell wall and capsule.(More)
BACKGROUND In January 2005, a quadrivalent (serogroups A, C , Y, and W-135) meningococcal conjugate vaccine was licensed for use in adolescents. This report describes the epidemiologic features of meningococcal disease in the United States from January 1998 through December 2007, before and during implementation of adolescent quadrivalent meningococcal(More)