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From October 4 to November 2, 2001, the first 10 confirmed cases of inhalational anthrax caused by intentional release of Bacillus anthracis were identified in the United States. Epidemiologic investigation indicated that the outbreak, in the District of Columbia, Florida, New Jersey, and New York, resulted from intentional delivery of B. anthracis spores(More)
The biological response to endotoxin mediated through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD-2 receptor complex is directly related to lipid A structure or configuration. Endotoxin structure may also influence activation of the MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathways of TLR4. To address this possibility, human macrophage-like cell lines (THP-1,(More)
Meningococcus, an obligate human bacterial pathogen, remains a worldwide and devastating cause of epidemic meningitis and sepsis. However, advances have been made in our understanding of meningococcal biology and pathogenesis, global epidemiology, transmission and carriage, host susceptibility, pathophysiology, and clinical presentations. Approaches to(More)
Pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis isolates contain a polysaccharide capsule that is the main virulence determinant for this bacterium. Thirteen capsular polysaccharides have been described, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has enabled determination of the structure of capsular polysaccharides responsible for serogroup specificity. Molecular(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has risen in recent years after the introduction of new macrolides and their increased use. We assessed emergence of macrolide-resistant invasive S pneumoniae disease in Atlanta, GA, USA, before and after the licensing, in February 2000, of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate(More)
Meningococcal lipopoly(oligo)saccharide (LOS) is a major inflammatory mediator of fulminant meningococcal sepsis and meningitis. Highly purified wild-type meningococcal LOS and LOS from genetically defined mutants of Neisseria meningitidis that contained specific mutations in LOS biosynthesis pathways were used to confirm that meningococcal LOS activation(More)
During October and November 2001, public health authorities investigated 11 patients with inhalational anthrax related to a bioterrorism attack in the United States. Formalin-fixed samples from 8 patients were available for pathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) study using monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus anthracis cell wall and capsule.(More)
The bioterrorism-associated human anthrax epidemic in the fall of 2001 highlighted the need for a sensitive, reproducible, and specific laboratory test for the confirmatory diagnosis of human anthrax. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed, optimized, and rapidly qualified an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G(More)
The human bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis remains a serious worldwide health threat, but progress is being made toward the control of meningococcal infections. This review summarizes current knowledge of the global epidemiology and the pathophysiology of meningococcal disease, as well as recent advances in prevention by new vaccines. Meningococcal(More)