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Expression of pipe in the somatic tissue of the Drosophila ovary is required for the formation of embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity. pipe, which encodes an enzyme similar to the glycosaminoglycan-modifying enzyme heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase, is expressed in a spatially restricted domain of follicle cells on the ventral side of the egg chamber.(More)
Dorsoventral axis formation in the Drosophila embryo is established by a signal transduction pathway that comprises the products of at least 12 maternal genes. Two of these genes, dorsal and cactus, show homology to the mammalian transcription factor NF-kappa B and its inhibitor I kappa B, respectively. As in the case for I kappa B and NF-kappa B, Cactus(More)
The development of the head and tail regions of the Drosophila embryo is dependent upon the localized polar activation of Torso (Tor), a receptor tyrosine kinase that is uniformly distributed in the membrane of the developing embryo. Trunk (Trk), the proposed ligand for Tor, is secreted as an inactive precursor into the perivitelline fluid that lies between(More)
Although it is known that the establishment of polarity during Drosophila oogenesis is initiated by signalling from the oocyte to the overlying follicle cells, much less is understood about the role of specific follicular subpopulations. One powerful approach for addressing this question, toxigenic cell ablation of specific subpopulations, has not(More)
Caveolae are vesicular organelles that represent a sub-compartment of the plasma membrane. Caveolins (Cav-1, -2 and -3) and flotillins (FLO-1 and FLO-2 [also known as epidermal surface antigens (ESAs)] are two families of mammalian caveolae-associated integral membrane proteins. Although a caveolin gene family has recently been described in the invertebrate(More)
This paper discusses issues in the design and implementation of metamorphic robotic systems. A metamorphic robotic system is a collection of independently controlled mechatronic modules, each of which has the ability to connect, disconnect, and climb over adjacent modules. A metamorphic system can dynamically reconngure by the locomotion of modules over(More)
Although the Myc oncogene has long been known to play a role in many human cancers, the mechanisms that mediate its effects in both normal cells and cancer cells are not fully understood. We have initiated a genetic analysis of the Drosophila homolog of the Myc oncoprotein (dMyc), which is encoded by the dm locus. We carried out mosaic analysis to elucidate(More)
Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral (DV) polarity is controlled by a group of sequentially acting serine proteases located in the fluid-filled perivitelline space between the embryonic membrane and the eggshell, which generate the ligand for the Toll receptor on the ventral side of the embryo. Spatial control of the protease cascade relies on the Pipe(More)
Recent studies in vertebrates and Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that Fringe-mediated activation of the Notch pathway has a role in patterning cell layers during organogenesis. In these processes, a homeobox-containing transcription factor is responsible for spatially regulating fringe (fng) expression and thus directing activation of the Notch(More)
BACKGROUND CCR5 is the major coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated whether site-specific modification of the gene ("gene editing")--in this case, the infusion of autologous CD4 T cells in which the CCR5 gene was rendered permanently dysfunctional by a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)--is safe. METHODS We enrolled 12 patients in an(More)