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The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect(More)
Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage(More)
Large numbers (10(4) to greater than 10(5)/ml) of Type I water-resistant Giardia lamblia cysts were produced in vitro under conditions that are characteristic of the human intestinal lumen. We define Type I cyst morphology as oval shaped, smooth, and refractile, with cyst wall, axostyle, and median body visible in relief by Normarski differential(More)
To study the interactions between the parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia and its environment, we have cloned the gene that encodes the two major surface-labeled trophozoite protein species. Sequence analysis of this gene reveals a single open reading frame specifying a hydrophilic, cysteine-rich (11.8%) protein of 72.5-kDa molecular mass with an(More)
Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) is a specific and irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway of the polyamines. We tested the effect of DFMO on the growth of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Growth of G. lamblia was inhibited by DFMO at(More)
Giardia lamblia, which belongs to the earliest identified lineage to diverge from the eukaryotic line of descent, is one of many protists reported to lack a Golgi apparatus. Our recent finding of a developmentally regulated secretory pathway in G. lamblia makes it an ideal organism with which to test the hypothesis that the Golgi may be more readily(More)
This study supports our previous hypotheses that normal human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro and that this killing is due to the release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from milk triglycerides by action of the bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSL) of human milk. Heat-stable killing of G. lamblia was generated when normal human milk was preincubated(More)
The Giardia lamblia cyst wall (CW), which is required for survival outside the host and infection, is a primitive extracellular matrix. Because of the importance of the CW, we queried the Giardia Genome Project Database with the coding sequences of the only two known CW proteins, which are cysteine-rich and contain leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). We identified(More)
The clinical course of giardiasis is variable, and serum antibodies do not appear to be protective. We propose that natural factors either produced by intestinal tissue, transported into the intestine, or ingested (ie, by breast-fed babies) might promote resistance to this disease. Human milk is very rich in secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies, as well as(More)