David S. Reiner

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The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect(More)
Large numbers (10(4) to greater than 10(5)/ml) of Type I water-resistant Giardia lamblia cysts were produced in vitro under conditions that are characteristic of the human intestinal lumen. We define Type I cyst morphology as oval shaped, smooth, and refractile, with cyst wall, axostyle, and median body visible in relief by Normarski differential(More)
Since the Giardia lamblia cyst wall is necessary for survival in the environment and host infection, we tested the hypothesis that it contains proteins other than the three known cyst wall proteins. Serial analysis of gene expression during growth and encystation revealed a gene, "HCNCp" (High Cysteine Non-variant Cyst protein), that was upregulated late in(More)
Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage(More)
We quantified mRNA abundance from 10 stages in the Giardia lamblia life cycle in vitro using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). 163 abundant transcripts were expressed constitutively. 71 transcripts were upregulated specifically during excystation and 42 during encystation. Nonetheless, the transcriptomes of cysts and trophozoites showed major(More)
Giardia lamblia, which belongs to the earliest identified lineage to diverge from the eukaryotic line of descent, is one of many protists reported to lack a Golgi apparatus. Our recent finding of a developmentally regulated secretory pathway in G. lamblia makes it an ideal organism with which to test the hypothesis that the Golgi may be more readily(More)
The Giardia lamblia cyst wall (CW), which is required for survival outside the host and infection, is a primitive extracellular matrix. Because of the importance of the CW, we queried the Giardia Genome Project Database with the coding sequences of the only two known CW proteins, which are cysteine-rich and contain leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). We identified(More)
Giardia lamblia is an extremely primitive or early-diverging eukaryote that has been considered to have no typical ER or Golgi apparatus, although it is a complex and highly developed cell. Both the trophozoite and cyst have unusual surface proteins that enable these stages to survive in very different and hostile environments. We found that G. lamblia(More)
Synthesis, transport, and assembly of the extracellular cyst wall is the hallmark of Giardia lamblia encystation. Much is known of the biochemical pathways and their regulation. However, from a cell biology point of view, the biogenesis of the encystation specific vesicles (ESVs) that transport cyst wall proteins to the periphery of the cell is poorly(More)
Protein-disulfide isomerase is essential for formation and reshuffling of disulfide bonds during nascent protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. The two thioredoxin-like active sites catalyze a variety of thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. We have characterized three novel protein-disulfide isomerases from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.(More)