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The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect(More)
Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage(More)
BACKGROUND The major human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a very early branching eukaryote with a minimal genome of broad evolutionary and biological interest. RESULTS To explore early kinase evolution and regulation of Giardia biology, we cataloged the kinomes of three sequenced strains. Comparison with published kinomes and those of the(More)
We describe the tools and theory of a comprehensive system for database design, and show how they work together to support multiple conceptual and logical design processes. The Database Design and Evaluation Workbench (DDEW) system uses a rigorous, information-content-preserving approach to schema transformation, but combines it with heuristics, guess work,(More)
We describe an optimizer for relational queries to databases stored as flat files and Codasyl networks. We include sophisticated manipulations on a broad range of direct access structures (DAS's). To achieve this with minimum additional code, we allow operations like sort, scan, and join to apply to DAS's, and categorize indexes and other DAS's in terms of(More)
Giardia lamblia, an important cause of diarrheal disease, resides in the small intestinal lumen in close apposition to epithelial cells. Since the disease mechanisms underlying giardiasis are poorly understood, elucidating the specific interactions of the parasite with the host epithelium is likely to provide clues to understanding the pathogenesis. Here we(More)
A crucial part of relational query optimization is the reordering of query processing for more efficient query evaluation. The reordering may be explicit or implicit. Our major goal in this paper is to describe manipulation rules for queries that include outerjoins, and views or nested subqueries. By expressing queries and processing Strategies in terms of(More)