David S Newburg

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The most common cause of infant mortality is diarrhea; the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea is Campylobacter jejuni, which is also the primary cause of motor neuron paralysis. The first step in campylobacter pathogenesis is adherence to intestinal mucosa. We found that such binding was inhibited in vitro by human milk and, with high avidity, by(More)
We characterized the binding of 8 Noroviruses (NORs) to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in human saliva using recombinant NOR (rNOR) capsid proteins. Among the 8 rNORs tested, 6 formed viruslike particles (VLPs) when the capsid proteins were expressed in insect cells, all of which revealed variable binding activities with saliva; the remaining 2 rNORs(More)
Breastfed infants have lower morbidity and mortality due to diarrhea than those fed artificially. This had been attributed primarily to the secretory antibodies and prebiotic factors in human milk. Oligosaccharides are the third largest component of human milk. They were initially considered to be functionless by-products of glycoprotein and glycolipid(More)
Specific human milk oligosaccharides, especially fucosylated neutral oligosaccharides, protect infants against specific microbial pathogens. To study the concentrations of individual neutral oligosaccharides during lactation, a total of 84 milk samples were obtained from 12 women at 7 time periods during weeks 1-49 postpartum. The neutral oligosaccharides(More)
BACKGROUND Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease that afflicts 10% of extremely preterm infants. The contribution of early intestinal colonization to NEC onset is not understood, and predictive biomarkers to guide prevention are lacking. We analyzed banked stool and urine samples collected prior to disease onset from infants(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the association between maternal milk levels of 2-linked fucosylated oligosaccharide and prevention of diarrhea as a result of Campylobacter, caliciviruses, and diarrhea of all causes in breast-fed infants. STUDY DESIGN Data and banked samples were analyzed from 93 breast-feeding mother-infant pairs who were prospectively studied(More)
The neonatal adaptive immune system, relatively naïve to foreign antigens, requires synergy with the innate immune system to protect the intestine. Goblet cells provide mucins, Paneth cells produce antimicrobial peptides, and dendritic cells (DCs) present luminal antigens. Intracellular signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) elicits chemokines and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the impact of empiric ampicillin and gentamicin use in the first week of life on microbial colonization and diversity in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN The 16s ribosomal DNA community profiling was used to compare the microbiota of 74 infants born ≤32 weeks gestational age by degree of antibiotic use in the first week of life. The(More)
BACKGROUND Human milk contains a 46 kDa mucin-associated glycoprotein, lactadherin, which binds specifically to rotavirus and inhibits its replication. This study tested the hypothesis that lactadherin protects against symptoms of rotavirus infection. METHODS 200 infants in Mexico City were recruited at birth and monitored by regular stool EIA for(More)