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The main-chain bond lengths and bond angles of protein structures are analysed as a function of resolution. Neither the means nor standard deviations of these parameters show any correlation with resolution over the resolution range investigated. This is as might be expected as bond lengths and bond angles are likely to be heavily influenced by the(More)
MOTIVATION The efficiency of bioinformatics programmers can be greatly increased through the provision of ready-made software components that can be rapidly combined, with additional bespoke components where necessary, to create finished programs. The new standard for C++ includes an efficient and easy to use library of generic algorithms and(More)
The free R factor is used routinely as a cross-validation tool in macromolecular crystallography. However, without any means of deriving quantitative estimates of its expected value and variance, its application has been rather subjective and its usefulness therefore somewhat limited. In the first part of this series, estimates of the expected value of the(More)
Faster workstations with larger memories are making error estimation from full-matrix least-squares refinement a more practicable technique in protein crystallography. Using minimum variance weighting, estimated standard deviations of atomic positions have been calculated for two eye lens proteins from the inverse of a least-squares normal matrix which was(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the eye lens protein, bovine gamma-crystallin II, has been determined at 2.6 A resolution. The protein has a tow domain beta-structure, folded into four remarkably similar 'Greed key' motifs, and shows the highest internal symmetry of any protein studied by X-ray analysis. Although the symmetrical structure seems very(More)
Vaccine research is a combinatorial science requiring computational analysis of vaccine components, formulations and optimization. We have developed a framework that combines computational tools for the study of immune function and vaccine development. This framework, named ImmunoGrid combines conceptual models of the immune system, models of antigen(More)
BACKGROUND pKa values are a measure of the protonation of ionizable groups in proteins. Ionizable groups are involved in intra-protein, protein-solvent and protein-ligand interactions as well as solubility, protein folding and catalytic activity. The pKa shift of a group from its intrinsic value is determined by the perturbation of the residue by the(More)
NetB is a pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been reported to play a major role in the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis, a disease that has emerged due to the removal of antibiotics in animal feedstuffs. Here we present the crystal structure of the pore form of NetB solved to 3.9 Å. The heptameric assembly shares(More)
BACKGROUND G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important physiological roles transducing extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Approximately 50% of all marketed drugs target a GPCR. There remains considerable interest in effectively predicting the function of a GPCR from its primary sequence. FINDINGS Using techniques drawn from data(More)
MOTIVATION Modelling antigenic shift in influenza A H3N2 can help to predict the efficiency of vaccines. The virus is known to exhibit sudden jumps in antigenic distance, and prediction of such novel strains from amino acid sequence differences remains a challenge. RESULTS From analysis of 6624 amino acid sequences of wild-type H3, we propose updates to(More)