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A sex difference on mental-rotation tasks has been demonstrated repeatedly, but not in children less than 4 years of age. To demonstrate mental rotation in human infants, we habituated 5-month-old infants to an object revolving through a 240 degrees angle. In successive test trials, infants saw the habituation object or its mirror image revolving through a(More)
Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of shigellosis, is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that initiates infection by invading cells within the colonic epithelium. Contact with host cell surfaces induces a rapid burst of protein secretion via the Shigella type III secretion system (TTSS). The first proteins secreted are IpaD, IpaB, and IpaC, with IpaB(More)
In this study, the authors demonstrated that 6-month-old infants are able to categorize natural, 650 Hz low-pass filtered infant-directed utterances. In Experiment 1, 24 male and 24 female infants heard 7 different tokens from 1 class of utterance (comforting or approving). Then, some infants heard a novel test stimulus from the familiar class of tokens;(More)
Mental rotation involves transforming a mental image of an object so as to accurately predict how the object would look if it were rotated in space. This study examined mental rotation in male and female 3-month-olds, using the stimuli and paradigm developed by Moore & Johnson (2008). Infants were habituated to a video of a 3-dimensional object rotating(More)
AIM To investigate whether a lessened glucocorticoid cumulative dose would lead to a decreased incidence of femoral head osteonecrosis. METHODS Newly transplanted in-patients (n = 49) underwent hip radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a mean of 17.0+/-4.3 (range 8-29) days after renal transplantation. For the 48 patients without evidence of(More)
Microalgae, with their high lipid content, are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels. Traditionally, human and environmentally toxic solvents have been used to extract these lipids, diminishing the sustainability of this process. Herein, pulsed electric field technology was utilized as a process intensification strategy to enhance lipid extraction from(More)
Shigella flexneri uses its type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) to deliver invasins into human cells. This TTSA possesses an external needle with IpaD at its tip. We now show that deoxycholate promotes the stable recruitment of IpaB to the needle tip without inducing a rapid burst of type III secretion. The maintenance of IpaB at the needle tip requires a(More)
To extend a previous finding that 6-month-old infants categorized low-pass filtered infant-directed (ID) utterances, we examined a) 6-month-old infants' categorization of more naturalistic, unfiltered ID utterances and b) the developmental progression of ID-speech categorization. In Experiment 1, 6-month-olds heard seven different unfiltered tokens from one(More)
Ought we to base beginning instruction in statistics for general students on the Bayesian approach to inference? In the long run, this question will be settled by progress (or lack of progress) in persuading users of statistical methods to choose Bayesian methods. This paper is primarily concerned with the peda-gogical challenges posed by Bayesian(More)