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Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical(More)
UNLABELLED During infections with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is utilized as a carbon source for parasite metabolism and also to facilitate parasite dissemination by stimulating dendritic-cell motility. The best-recognized function for GABA, however, is its role in the nervous system as an inhibitory(More)
No effective drug and definitive "gold standard" treatment for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has been available so far, though some medicines have been commonly used in the treatment of T. gondii infection, such as spiramycin, azithromycin, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), pyrimethamine- sulfadiazine (P-S), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(More)
Feline trichomoniasis is an intestinal disease in cats resulting in chronic diarrhea, flatulence, tenesmus, and fecal incontinence. Bovine trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease of cattle infecting the reproductive tract of cows causing pyometra and possible mid- to late-term abortions. The causative agent for both diseases has been reported to be(More)
OBJECTIVE Quantified risks of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection and abnormal pregnancy outcomes following primary maternal infection were evaluated with meta- analysis based on published studies. METHODS The related literatures were searched in multiple literature databases regardless of languages. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is the etiologic agent responsible for toxoplasmosis. Infection with T. gondii results in activation of nucleotide binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs). NLR activation leads to inflammasome formation, the activation of caspase-1, and the subsequent cleavage of IL-1β(More)