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Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical(More)
UNLABELLED During infections with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is utilized as a carbon source for parasite metabolism and also to facilitate parasite dissemination by stimulating dendritic-cell motility. The best-recognized function for GABA, however, is its role in the nervous system as an inhibitory(More)
Leishmania infantum, an etiologic agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, is widespread among foxhounds in the United States. Although sand flies are widely distributed throughout the United States, epidemiological data do not support a major role for sand flies in the transmission of L. infantum in foxhounds in this country. Congenital transmission of(More)
No effective drug and definitive "gold standard" treatment for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has been available so far, though some medicines have been commonly used in the treatment of T. gondii infection, such as spiramycin, azithromycin, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), pyrimethamine- sulfadiazine (P-S), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(More)
The most challenging obstacles to testing products for their anthelmintic activity are: (1) establishing a suitable nematode in vitro assay that can evaluate potential product use against a parasitic nematode of interest and (2) preparation of extracts that can be redissolved in solvents that are miscible in the test medium and are at concentrations well(More)
The global distribution of leishmaniasis is rapidly expanding into new geographic regions. Dogs are the primary reservoir hosts for human visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania infantum. Natural infections with other Leishmania spp. can occur in dogs, but their role as reservoir hosts for other species of Leishmania is uncertain.(More)
Rectal fecal samples were collected daily on 10 consecutive days in November 2004 from 11 weaned beef heifers to assess daily variation in fecal oocyst count and species composition. Subsequent samples were collected from the same animals on 15 April 2005 and 9 June 2005. Oocyst numbers were determined by the modified McMaster's test, and species were(More)