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Current clinical, laboratory or radiological parameters cannot accurately diagnose or predict disease outcomes in a range of autoimmune disorders. Biomarkers which can diagnose at an earlier time point, predict outcome or help guide therapeutic strategies in autoimmune diseases could improve clinical management of this broad group of debilitating disorders.(More)
The present study was undertaken to test whether inhibition of the proangiogenic inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha can modulate retinal hypoxia and preretinal neovascularization in a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). OIR was produced in TNF-alpha-/- and wild-type (WT) control C57B6 neonatal mice by exposure to 75%(More)
Synovial fluid is a potential source of novel biomarkers for many arthritic disorders involving joint inflammation, including juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We first compared the distinctive protein 'fingerprints' of local inflammation in synovial fluid with systemic profiles within matched plasma samples. The synovial fluid proteome at the time of joint(More)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) comprises a poorly understood group of chronic, childhood onset, autoimmune diseases with variable clinical outcomes. We investigated whether profiling of the synovial fluid (SF) proteome by a fluorescent dye based, two-dimensional gel (DIGE) approach could distinguish patients in whom inflammation extends to affect a(More)
This review examines the biomarker development process by using rheumatic disorders as the disease model for discussion. We evaluate the current role of biomarkers in the practice of rheumatology and discuss their likely role in the future. We define the essential components of the biomarker development pipeline and discuss the issue of fitness for purpose,(More)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis reflects a group of clinically heterogeneous arthritides hallmarked by elevated concentrations of circulating immune complexes. In this study, the circulating immune complex proteome was examined to elucidate disease-associated proteins that are overexpressed in patients with an aggressive, and at times destructive, disease(More)
This review aims to summarise our knowledge to date on the protein complement of the synovial fluid (SF). The tissues, structure and pathophysiology of the synovial joint are briefly described. The salient features of the SF proteome, how it is composed and the influence of arthritic disease are highlighted and discussed. The concentrations of proteins that(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to elucidate the role of specific cytokines in lupus (SLE) arthritis. METHODS Fifty SLE and 40 RA patients had an ultrasound (US) scan of their hand as per standardized protocols. US scores were expressed per joint and as a total 'US activity' score, (sum of power Doppler (PD) and grey-scale synovial hypertrophy(More)
In 2000, the United States Census Bureau began the annual American Community Survey (ACS), which collects data on earnings and employment for persons with various types of impairment. One of the impairments is cognitive disability, defined as existing when a person has a condition lasting six months or more that results in difficulty learning, remembering,(More)