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BACKGROUND Although overweight and obesity in childhood are related to dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension, most studies have examined levels of these risk factors individually or have used internal cutpoints (eg, quintiles) to classify overweight and risk factors. OBJECTIVE We used cutpoints derived from several national studies to examine(More)
BACKGROUND Obese children may be at increased risk of becoming obese adults. To examine the relationship between obesity in childhood and obesity in adulthood, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature published between 1970 and July 1992. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of obesity, and analytic methods(More)
"This paper details the authors' selection, design, and use of a life history calendar (LHC) to collect retrospective life course data. A sample of nine hundred [U.S.] 23-year-olds, originally interviewed in 1980, were asked about the incidence and timing of various life events in the nine years since their 15th birthday.... The following aspects of the(More)
Although each of the major lipoprotein fractions is composed of various subclasses that may differ in atherogenicity, the importance of this heterogeneity has been difficult to ascertain owing to the labor-intensive nature of subclass measurement methods. We have recently developed a procedure, using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, to(More)
BACKGROUND Several investigators have concluded that the waist-to-height ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors than is the body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). OBJECTIVES We examined the relation of the BMI-for-age z score and waist-to-height ratio to risk factors (lipids, fasting insulin, and blood pressures). We also(More)
BACKGROUND The current anemia burden among US preschool children and women of childbearing age has not been documented. OBJECTIVE We used data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988-1994 and 1999-2002 to examine recent anemia changes. DESIGN We calculated the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11.0 g/dL at <24 mo, <11.1 g/dL at(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in conventional lipid risk factors with gemfibrozil treatment only partially explain the reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) events experienced by men in the Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial (VA-HIT). We examined whether measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the accuracy of various body mass index (BMI) cutpoints in identifying children who have excess adiposity (based on skinfold thicknesses), adverse levels of lipids, insulin, and blood pressures, and a high risk for severe adult obesity. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional (n = 10,099) and longitudinal (n = 2392) analyses were performed among(More)
BACKGROUND Although body fat patterning has been related to adverse health outcomes in adults, its importance in children and adolescents is less certain. OBJECTIVE We examined the relation of circumference (waist and hip) and skinfold-thickness (subscapular and triceps) measurements to lipid and insulin concentrations among 2996 children and adolescents(More)
BACKGROUND The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD's distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD,(More)