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Cell membranes can be transiently permeabilized under application of electric pulses. This treatment allows hydrophilic therapeutic molecules, such as anticancer drugs and DNA, to enter into cells and tissues. This process, called electropermeabilization or electroporation, has been rapidly developed over the last decade to deliver genes to tissues and(More)
We calculate the average number of critical points of a Gaussian field on a high-dimensional space as a function of their energy and their index. Our results give a complete picture of the organization of critical points and are of relevance to glassy and disordered systems and landscape scenarios coming from the anthropic approach to string theory.
Electropermeabilisation is a well established physical method, based on the application of electric pulses, which induces the transient permeabilisation of the cell membrane. External molecules, otherwise nonpermeant, can enter the cell. Electropermeabilisation is now in use for the delivery of a large variety of molecules, as drugs and nucleic acids.(More)
Electroporation is a physical method to induce the uptake of therapeutic drugs and DNA, by eukaryotic cells and tissues. The phenomena behind electro-mediated membrane permeabilization to plasmid DNA have been shown to be significantly more complex than those for small molecules. Small molecules cross the permeabilized membrane by diffusion whereas plasmid(More)
We study a fragmentation problem where an initial object of size x is broken into m random pieces provided x > x0 where x0 is an atomic cutoff. Subsequently the fragmentation process continues for each of those daughter pieces whose sizes are bigger than x0. The process stops when all the fragments have sizes smaller than x0. We show that the fluctuation of(More)
Over the last few decades, various vectors have been developed in the field of gene therapy. There still exist a number of important unresolved problems associated with the use of viral as well as non viral vectors. These techniques can suffer from secondary toxicity or low gene transfer efficiency. Therefore an efficient and safe method of DNA delivery(More)
We study the effect of permeabilizing electric fields applied to two different types of giant unilamellar vesicles, the first formed from EggPC lipids and the second formed from DOPC lipids. Experiments on vesicles of both lipid types show a decrease in vesicle radius, which is interpreted as being due to lipid loss during the permeabilization process. We(More)
We discuss experimental observations of DNA uptake induced by electropermeabilisation. First we describe how experiments on giant unilamelar vesicles can be used to understand the effect of electric fields on lipid membranes and the associated transfer of DNA across the plasma membrane. We then discuss how DNA interacts with electropermeabilised cells in(More)
This review presents an overview of the effects of electric fields on giant unilamellar vesicles. The application of electrical fields leads to three basic phenomena: shape changes, membrane breakdown, and uptake of molecules. We describe how some of these observations can be used to measure a variety of physical properties of lipid membranes or to advance(More)