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The masticatory muscles in 132 anesthetized male and female rhesus monkeys ranging in age from juvenile to adult were unilaterally stimulated. Muscle forces and speeds were measured with a bite force transducer positioned at the incisors, premolars, and molars during twitch and tetanic contractions. Lateral cephalographs of all animals were used to estimate(More)
The relationship between translation of the mandibular condyle during symmetrical mandibular rotation, i.e., symmetrical jaw depression and elevation, and the function of the superficial masseter muscle was examined in light of relative torque and the length-tension relationship for muscle. Lateral cephalograms of live adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)(More)
The hypothesis was tested that increasing the resting length of the masseter and temporalis muscles by a bite-opening appliance with or without detachment and re-attachment of the masseter would not affect the contractile properties of these muscles. Appliances opened the bite of 10 adult female monkeys 20 mm. Five received the appliance alone (Group A);(More)
Lateral functional shift of the mandible is characterized by transverse rotation of the entire mandible about a vertical axis toward 1 side of the head. The effect of this shift is that the condyle on the side opposite the direction of the shift is displaced anteriorly, or protruded, while the condyle on the side toward the shift is more stable positionally(More)
Many laboratory polysomnographic (LPSG) studies have shown only modest sleep differences between insomniacs and matched, noncomplaining normal controls. However, the extent to which LPSG methodology affects the outcome of such comparisons has yet to be tested. In the current investigation, 32 (16 females, 16 males) older (age > or = 60 years) insomniacs and(More)
The histochemical characteristics, cross-sectional area and capillary of the skeletal muscle fibers of the anterior and posterior regions of the superficial masseter and the temporalis muscles are described for juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys of both sexes. Slow twitch fatigue resistant (S), fast twitch fatigue resistant (FR) and fast twitch fatigable(More)
The performance of the Caltrac accelerometer was studied in elementary school-age children under field and laboratory conditions. In Study 1, 35 children (20 boys, 15 girls, mean age = 10.8 yr) wore the accelerometer and a heart rate (HR) monitor for 2 d. Caltrac activity counts per hour were compared to the mean "activity HR", which was calculated by(More)
The present research focuses on craniofacial variation in Nubia over approximately 10,000 years. Samples were grouped according to their temporal location and subsistence pattern, and represent a transition from a hunting-gathering adaptation (Mesolithic) to a transitional hunting-gathering-agricultural adaptation (A-C Group) and finally to a fully(More)
Histochemical properties, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, muscle fiber length, and the oxidative capacity of masticatory muscles of female rhesus monkeys were assessed following alteration in functional length by an intraoral appliance or by detachment of the muscle. Experimental groups received the appliance only (A); the appliance and subsequent(More)
Analyzing feeding behavior, and in particular meal duration, can be used as a biological marker for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation/pain. The present study determined the specificity of meal duration as a measure of TMJ inflammation/pain in a rodent model. The model was also used to test the efficacy of dexamethasone (DEX) as a treatment for TMJ(More)