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Dragonflies are four-winged insects that have the ability to control aerodynamic performance by modulating the phase lag (phi) between forewings and hindwings. We film the wing motion of a tethered dragonfly and compute the aerodynamic force and power as a function of the phase. We find that the out-of-phase motion as seen in steady hovering uses nearly(More)
BACKGROUND Inherited and acquired retinal degenerations are frequent causes of visual impairment and photoreceptor cell replacement therapy may restore visual function to these individuals. To provide a source of new retinal neurons for cell based therapies, we developed methods to derive retinal progenitors from human ES cells. METHODOLOGY/PHYSICAL(More)
The prevailing model of the mechanical function of intermediate filaments in cells assumes that these 10 nm diameter filaments make up networks that behave as entropic gels, with individual intermediate filaments never experiencing direct loading in tension. However, recent work has shown that single intermediate filaments and bundles are remarkably(More)
This paper presents a case study of evaluating intelligent tutoring modules for procedural knowledge acquisition in numeric disciplines. As Iqbal et al. (1999) have noted, the benefit of carrying out evaluation of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) is to focus the attention away from short-term delivery and open up a dialogue about issues of(More)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often accompanied by memory problems and abnormal brain structure, particularly within the hippocampus. We implemented a cross-species, hippocampal-dependent task--the virtual Morris Water task--to assess hippocampal function in people with PTSD and age-matched controls during functional magnetic resonance imaging(More)
It was hypothesized that rapid rather than slow re-warming following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and short-term hypothermia results in secondary, ultrastructural pathology. After stretch injury to the right optic nerve, adult guinea pigs were randomly allocated to one of six experimental groups. Either (1) sham (all procedures but not stretch-injured; n =(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been shown to play an important role in macrophage cholesterol trafficking and associated inflammation. To further elucidate the role of FABP4 in atherogenesis in humans, we examined the regulation of FABP4 in carotid atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. METHODS We examined plasma FABP4(More)
OBJECTIVE Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that involves a range of inflammatory mediators. Although interleukin (IL)-9 has been related to inflammation, there are at present no data on its role in atherosclerosis. Here we have examined IL-9 and IL-9 receptor (IL-9R) systemically and locally in patients with coronary and carotid(More)
BACKGROUND Ischemic stroke in young adults is a major health problem being associated with a higher vascular morbidity and mortality compared to controls, and a stroke recurrence rate of 25% during the first decade. The assumed cause of infarction and the detected risk factors determine the early- and long-term treatment. However, for many patients the(More)