David Ruggieri

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BACKGROUND Although fertility drugs stimulate ovulation and raise estradiol levels, their effect on breast cancer risk remains unresolved. METHODS An extended follow-up was conducted among a cohort of 12,193 women evaluated for infertility between 1965 and 1988 at five U.S. sites. Follow-up through 2010 was achieved for 9,892 women (81.1% of the eligible(More)
BACKGROUND The role of estrogen metabolism in determining breast cancer risk and differences in breast cancer rates between high-incidence and low-incidence nations is poorly understood. METHODS We measured urinary concentrations of estradiol and estrone (parent estrogens) and 13 estrogen metabolites formed by irreversible hydroxylation at the C-2, C-4,(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship of ovulation-stimulating drugs to risk of cancers other than breast and gynecologic malignancies. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study, with additional follow-up since initial report. SETTING Reproductive endocrinology practices. PATIENT(S) Among a cohort of 12,193 women evaluated for infertility between 1965 and(More)
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