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Higher-order theories of consciousness argue that conscious awareness crucially depends on higher-order mental representations that represent oneself as being in particular mental states. These theories have featured prominently in recent debates on conscious awareness. We provide new leverage on these debates by reviewing the empirical evidence in support(More)
Hybrid speciation is thought to be facilitated by escape of early generation hybrids into new habitats, subsequent environmental selection and adaptation. Here, we ask whether two homoploid hybrid plant species (Helianthus anomalus, H. deserticola) diverged sufficiently from their ancestral parent species (H. annuus, H. petiolaris) during hybrid speciation(More)
Two approaches to building intelligent tutoring systems are the well-established model-tracing paradigm and the relatively newer constraint-based paradigm. Proponents of the constraint-based paradigm claim that it affords performance at levels comparable to that of model-tracing tutors, but with significantly less development effort. We have built both a(More)
There are several phenomena we call consciousness, each of which gives rise to special problems and puzzles. One is the condition people and other creatures are in when they are conscious, as against when they are, for example, asleep, knocked out, or anesthetized. And there is the related question about what distinguishes people and other creatures that(More)
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom(More)
BACKGROUND Radiation safety is an essential component in the treatment of patients with thyroid diseases by ¹³¹I. The American Thyroid Association created a task force to develop recommendations that would inform medical professionals about attainment of radiation safety for patients, family members, and the public. The task force was constituted so as to(More)
Model tracing and constraint-based modeling are two prominent paradigms on which intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have been based. We Kodaganallur, Weitz and Rosenthal (2005), have written a paper comparing the two paradigms, and offering guidance based on this comparison to prospective authors of ITSs. In a detailed critique of our paper, Mitrovic and(More)