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Higher-order theories of consciousness argue that conscious awareness crucially depends on higher-order mental representations that represent oneself as being in particular mental states. These theories have featured prominently in recent debates on conscious awareness. We provide new leverage on these debates by reviewing the empirical evidence in support(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men in Western countries. In-vitro and in-vivo studies suggest that oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidants play a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases including PCa, which is promoted by the production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms. This study(More)
Two approaches to building intelligent tutoring systems are the well-established model-tracing paradigm and the relatively newer constraint-based paradigm. Proponents of the constraint-based paradigm claim that it affords performance at levels comparable to that of model-tracing tutors, but with significantly less development effort. We have built both a(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-induced and drug-related deaths have been increasing for the past decade throughout the US. In NYC, drug overdose accounts for nearly 900 deaths per year, a figure that exceeds the number of deaths each year from homicide. Naloxone, a highly effective opiate antagonist, has for decades been used by doctors and paramedics during emergency(More)
Model tracing and constraint-based modeling are two prominent paradigms on which intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) have been based. We Kodaganallur, Weitz and Rosenthal (2005), have written a paper comparing the two paradigms, and offering guidance based on this comparison to prospective authors of ITSs. In a detailed critique of our paper, Mitrovic and(More)