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Hybridization is frequent in many organismal groups, but its role in adaptation is poorly understood. In sunflowers, species found in the most extreme habitats are ancient hybrids, and new gene combinations generated by hybridization are speculated to have contributed to ecological divergence. This possibility was tested through phenotypic and genomic(More)
We compared the levels and distribution of genetic diversity in Eurasian and North American populations of Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) Beauv. (false brome), a newly invasive perennial bunchgrass in western North America. Our goals were to identify source regions for invasive populations, determine the number of independent invasion events, and assess(More)
In arid ecosystems, variation in precipitation causes broad-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil moisture, but differences in soil texture, development, and plant cover can also create substantial local soil moisture heterogeneity. The boundary between inland desert sand dunes and adjacent desert habitats exhibits abrupt changes in soil and vegetation(More)
Higher-order theories of consciousness argue that conscious awareness crucially depends on higher-order mental representations that represent oneself as being in particular mental states. These theories have featured prominently in recent debates on conscious awareness. We provide new leverage on these debates by reviewing the empirical evidence in support(More)
BACKGROUND Biochemical models predict that photosynthesis in C(3) plants is most frequently limited by the slower of two processes, the maximum capacity of the enzyme Rubisco to carboxylate RuBP (V(c,max)), or the regeneration of RuBP via electron transport (J). At current atmospheric [CO(2)] levels Rubisco is not saturated; consequently, elevating [CO(2)](More)
Can the complex phenotypes that characterize naturally occurring hybrid species be re-created in early-generation artificial hybrids? We address this question with three homoploid hybrid species (Helianthus anomalus, Helianthus deserticola, Helianthus paradoxus) and their ancestral parents (Helianthus annuus, Helianthus petiolaris) that are phenotypically(More)
Habitats that differ in soil resource availability are expected to differ for selection on resource-related plant traits. Here, we examined spatial and temporal variation in phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits for 10 Helianthus populations, including two species of hybrid origin, Helianthus anomalus and Helianthus deserticola, and(More)
Approximately 925 million people are undernourished and almost 90% of these people live in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia and the Pacific. Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, continues to have the highest proportion of chronically hungry individuals, where 1 in 3 (ca. 240 million) are undernourished in terms of both food quantity and nutrition. The threat of(More)