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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has essential roles in adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis, and is a molecular target of insulin-sensitizing drugs. Although the ability of PPAR-gamma agonists to antagonize inflammatory responses by transrepression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) target genes is linked to antidiabetic and(More)
The precise mechanistic relationship between gene activation and repression events is a central question in mammalian organogenesis, as exemplified by the evolutionarily conserved sine oculis (Six), eyes absent (Eya) and dachshund (Dach) network of genetically interacting proteins. Here, we report that Six1 is required for the development of murine kidney,(More)
The mechanisms that control the precisely regulated switch from gene repression to gene activation represent a central question in mammalian development. Here, we report that transcriptional activation mediated by liganded nuclear receptors unexpectedly requires the actions of two highly related F box/WD-40-containing factors, TBL1 and TBLR1, initially(More)
Nuclear receptors regulate gene expression by direct activation of target genes and inhibition of AP-1. Here we report that, unexpectedly, activation by nuclear receptors requires the actions of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and that inhibition of AP-1 activity is the apparent result of competition for limiting amounts of CBP/p300 in cells. Utilizing distinct(More)
The functionally conserved proteins CBP and p300 act in conjunction with other factors to activate transcription of DNA. A new factor, p/CIP, has been discovered that is present in the cell as a complex with CBP and is required for transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors and other CBP/p300-dependent transcription factors. The highly related(More)
Multiple enzymatic activities are required for transcriptional initiation. The enzyme DNA topoisomerase II associates with gene promoter regions and can generate breaks in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Therefore, it is of interest to know whether this enzyme is critical for regulated gene activation. We report that the signal-dependent activation of gene(More)
Defining the molecular mechanisms that integrate diverse signaling pathways at the level of gene transcription remains a central issue in biology. Here, we demonstrate that interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) causes nuclear export of a specific N-CoR corepressor complex, resulting in derepression of a specific subset of NF-kappaB-regulated genes, exemplified by(More)
Understanding the functional significance of the coordinate expression of specific corepressors and DNA-binding transcription factors remains a critical question in mammalian development. During the development of the pituitary gland, two highly related paired-like homeodomain factors, a repressor, Hesx1/Rpx and an activator, Prop-1, are expressed in(More)
This study investigated the ability of human observers to discriminate the direction of laterally-moving cyclopean stimuli, in order to assess some of the properties of stereoscopic mechanisms that mediate the perception of cyclopean motion (motion existing at levels of binocular integration). The stimuli were moving grating patterns created from dynamic(More)
The cerebellum provides an excellent system for understanding how afferent and target neurons coordinate sequential intercellular signals and cell-autonomous genetic programs in development. Mutations in the orphan nuclear receptor RORalpha block Purkinje cell differentiation with a secondary loss of afferent granule cells. We show that early(More)