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We present several statistical models of syntactic constituent order for sentence realization. We compare several models, including simple joint models inspired by existing statistical parsing models, and several novel conditional models. The conditional models leverage a large set of linguistic features without manual feature selection. We apply and(More)
Despite the benefits associated with virtual learning environments and serious games, there are open, fundamental issues regarding simulation fidelity and multi-modal cue interaction and their effect on immersion, transfer of knowledge, and retention. Here we describe the results of a study that examined the effect of ambient (background) sound on the(More)
Visual and auditory cues are important facilitators of user engagement in virtual environments and video games. Prior research supports the notion that our perception of visual fidelity (quality) is influenced by auditory stimuli. Understanding exactly how our perception of visual fidelity changes in the presence of multimodal stimuli can potentially impact(More)
People often learn game-related information in video games by taking turns playing and watching each other play. This type of in-game learning involves both observation and imitation of actions. However, games are also made to be learnt individually during gameplay. Our study seeks to assess which is more effective for learning: just playing a game yourself(More)
Gamification, that is, employing game design elements to non-gaming applications to make them more fun, engaging, and motivating, has been growing in popularity and is seen in a large number of contexts. In this paper we present a framework that seeks to provide investigators with guidelines for the implementation of gamification. The proposed framework is(More)
CONTEXT Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care(More)
The construct validity of a surgical bench-top simulator with built-in computer acquired assessments was examined. It features two parallel elastic tubes instrumented with flexion sensors that simulate the walls of a wound. Participants from three groups (9 novices, 7 intermediates, 9 experts) performed 10 two-handed, double square knots. The peak tensions(More)
—Here we investigate the effect of sound on the perception of visual realism and the time required to complete a simple navigation-based task within a serious gaming (virtual) environment under various sound and visual conditions. Results indicate that the perception of visual realism and task completion time can be affected by sound. Designers and(More)