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We present several statistical models of syntactic constituent order for sentence realization. We compare several models, including simple joint models inspired by existing statistical parsing models, and several novel conditional models. The conditional models leverage a large set of linguistic features without manual feature selection. We apply and(More)
BACKGROUND Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however,(More)
Despite the benefits associated with virtual learning environments and serious games, there are open, fundamental issues regarding simulation fidelity and multi-modal cue interaction and their effect on immersion, transfer of knowledge, and retention. Here we describe the results of a study that examined the effect of ambient (background) sound on the(More)
People often learn game-related information in video games by taking turns playing and watching each other play. This type of in-game learning involves both observation and imitation of actions. However, games are also made to be learnt individually during gameplay. Our study seeks to assess which is more effective for learning: just playing a game yourself(More)
Visual and auditory cues are important facilitators of user engagement in virtual environments and video games. Prior research supports the notion that our perception of visual fidelity (quality) is influenced by auditory stimuli. Understanding exactly how our perception of visual fidelity changes in the presence of multimodal stimuli can potentially impact(More)
Gamification, that is, employing game design elements to non-gaming applications to make them more fun, engaging, and motivating, has been growing in popularity and is seen in a large number of contexts. In this paper we present a framework that seeks to provide investigators with guidelines for the implementation of gamification. The proposed framework is(More)
CONTEXT Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care(More)
Before the application of virtual simulations and serious games for surgical education and training becomes more widespread, there are a number of open questions and issues that must be addressed including the relationship between realism, multi-modal cue interaction, immersion, and knowledge transfer and retention. Using the serious game surgical cognitive(More)
12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE TRI-20 13. ABSTRACT San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni) undertook a retrofit of a fixed-block signaling system with a communications-based train control (CBTC) system in the subway portion of their light rail system (Muni Metro subway) in 1998. This report presents the findings of an in-depth study of the effectiveness of(More)