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Extended-connectivity fingerprints (ECFPs) are a novel class of topological fingerprints for molecular characterization. Historically, topological fingerprints were developed for substructure and similarity searching. ECFPs were developed specifically for structure-activity modeling. ECFPs are circular fingerprints with a number of useful qualities: they(More)
Bluetongue, a devastating disease of ruminants, has historically made only brief, sporadic incursions into the fringes of Europe. However, since 1998, six strains of bluetongue virus have spread across 12 countries and 800 km further north in Europe than has previously been reported. We suggest that this spread has been driven by recent changes in European(More)
The genetic function approximation (GFA) algorithm offers a new approach to the problem of building quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models. Replacing regression analysis with the GFA algorithm allows the construction of models competitive with, or superior to, standard techniques(More)
More than 30 years ago, human beings looked back from the Moon to see the magnificent spectacle of Earth-rise. The technology that put us into space has since been used to assess the damage we are doing to our natural environment and is now being harnessed to monitor and predict diseases through space and time. Satellite sensor data promise the development(More)
This paper presents the results of an extensive search of the formal and informal literature on annual Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rates (EIR) across Africa from 1980 onwards. It first describes how the annual EIR data were collated, summarized, geo-referenced and staged for public access on the internet. Problems of data(More)
Dengue viruses and malaria protozoa are of increasing global concern in public health. The diseases caused by these pathogens often show regular seasonal patterns in incidence because of the sensitivity of their mosquito vectors to climate. Between years in endemic areas, however, there can be further significant variation in case numbers for which public(More)
OBJECTIVES Malaria risk maps have re-emerged as an important tool for appropriately targeting the limited resources available for malaria control. In Sub-Saharan Africa empirically derived maps using standardized criteria are few and this paper considers the development of a model of malaria risk for East Africa. METHODS Statistical techniques were(More)
We describe local tools, a general interaction technique<lb>that replaces traditional tool palettes. A collection of tools<lb>sit on the worksurface along with the data. Each tool can<lb>be picked up (where it replaces the cursor), used, and then<lb>put down anywhere on the worksurface. There is a tool-<lb>box for organizing the tools. These local tools(More)