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BACKGROUND Most early stage kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), and most are diagnosed incidentally by imaging as small renal masses (SRMs). Indirect evidence suggests that most small RCCs grow slowly and rarely metastasize. OBJECTIVE To determine the progression and growth rates for newly diagnosed SRMs stratified by needle core biopsy(More)
One key to malignant progression is the acquired ability of tumor cells to escape immune-mediated lysis. Whereas tumor hypoxia is known to play a causal role in cancer metastasis and resistance to therapy, the link between hypoxia and immune escape in cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we show that hypoxia induces tumor cell resistance to lysis(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe lymph node counts in routine clinical practice and evaluate their association with outcomes to explore its utility as a quality indicator. METHODS AND MATERIALS Electronic records of treatment and surgical pathology reports were linked with the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients who underwent cystectomy(More)
INTRODUCTION Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of the current best evidence in decision-making for the care of patients. Teaching best evidence practice in residency should include both formal or freestanding content, as well as integration into clinical scenarios and patient care. We sought to assess the(More)
OBJECTIVES Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder is an uncommon form of bladder cancer. Using a large population-based sample we sought to describe the outcomes of patients with squamous histology and to define the factors that influence prognosis in these patients. METHODS All incident cases of bladder cancer in Ontario undergoing cystectomy from(More)
OBJECTIVE MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are part of a class of small ribonucleic acid (RNAs). They are important regulatory molecules, involved in several cell processes, such as developmental timing, stem cell division and apoptosis. Dysregulated miRNAs have been identified in several human malignancies, including bladder cancer tissue samples, and may confer a(More)
PURPOSE Hypoxia contributes to drug resistance in solid cancers, and studies have revealed that low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) mimetics attenuate hypoxia-induced drug resistance in tumor cells in vitro. Classic NO signaling involves activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, generation of cyclic GMP (cGMP), and activation of cGMP-dependent protein(More)
PURPOSE Tumor hypoxia has been correlated with metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Hypoxia is also associated with human prostate cancers, which are highly resistant to chemotherapy. We hypothesized that hypoxia contributes to chemoresistance in prostate cancer cells and this hypoxia induced chemoresistance can be inhibited by low concentrations of(More)
PURPOSE High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is a putative precursor of invasive prostate cancer (PCa). Preclinical evidence suggests vitamin E, selenium, and soy protein may prevent progression of HGPIN to PCa. This hypothesis was tested in a randomized phase III double-blind study of daily soy (40 g), vitamin E (800 U), and selenium (200(More)
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is expressed by prostate epithelial cells and has a highly restricted tissue distribution. Prostatic malignancies in 95% of patients continue to express PSA, making this antigen a good candidate for targeted immunotherapy. The goals of our studies are to generate a recombinant PSA adenovirus type 5 (Ad5-PSA) that is safe and(More)