David Robert Holtgrave

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In 2006, Millett published a seminal literature review that examined 12 hypotheses to explain the high rates of HIV among black MSM. This paper augments Millett’s article by reviewing the recent literature on behavioral, biomedical, structural, social contextual, psychosocial, and social network factors that affect HIV rates among black MSM. We searched(More)
IMPORTANCE Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, prompt linkage to and sustained care, and antiretroviral therapy are associated with reduced individual morbidity, mortality, and transmission of the virus. However, levels of these indicators may differ among population groups with HIV. Disparities in care and treatment may(More)
OBJECTIVES AIDS service organizations (ASOs) rarely have access to the information needed to implement research-based HIV prevention interventions for their clients. We compared the effectiveness of 3 dissemination strategies for transferring HIV prevention models from the research arena to community providers of HIV prevention services. METHODS(More)
In the United States, HIV prevention programs have historically tailored activities for specific groups primarily on the basis of behavioral risk factors and demographic characteristics. Through the Serostatus Approach to Fighting the Epidemic (SAFE), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is now expanding prevention programs, especially for(More)
To allocate limited economic and other resources for HIV prevention and treatment for maximum benefit, health policy planners and decision makers require accurate, current estimates of the lifetime costs of HIV-related illness and the impact of therapy on the quality of life of HIV-infected persons. These data are central input parameters to the economic(More)
BACKGROUND Social capital has been related to a number of important public health variables such as child welfare, mortality, and health status. However, the relation of social capital to infectious diseases has received relatively little attention. The relation of social capital to health measures is often posited to be related to the key societal(More)
Transmission rate modeling estimated secondary infections from those aware and unaware of their HIV infection. An estimated 49% of transmissions were from the 20% of persons living with HIV unaware of their infection. About eight transmissions would be averted per 100 persons newly aware of their infection; with more infections averted the higher the(More)
Homelessness affects HIV risk and health, but little is known about the longitudinal effects of rental assistance on the housing status and health of homeless and unstably housed people living with HIV/AIDS. Homeless/unstably housed people living with HIV/AIDS (N = 630) were randomly assigned to immediate Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA)(More)
Public health researchers are addressing new research questions (e.g., effects of environmental tobacco smoke, Hurricane Katrina) for which the randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be a feasible option. Drawing on the potential outcomes framework (Rubin Causal Model) and Campbellian perspectives, we consider alternative research designs that permit(More)
OBJECTIVE Counseling and testing and partner notification are effective HIV prevention strategies, but they can be resource intensive. This paper evaluates the cost-effectiveness of partner notification and counseling and testing offered in HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in preventing future HIV infections in the United States of(More)