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The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to members of the extant phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids). Current classifications assume that chytrids form an early-diverging clade within the kingdom Fungi and imply a single loss of the spore flagellum, leading to the diversification of terrestrial fungi.(More)
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a molecular signature of most viruses, and triggers inflammatory responses that prevent viral spread. TLR3 ectodomains (ECDs) dimerize on oligonucleotides of at least 40 to 50 base pairs in length, the minimal length required for signal transduction. To establish the molecular basis for(More)
We have analyzed segregation patterns of markers among the late generation progeny of several crosses of pea. From the patterns of association of these markers we have deduced linkage orders. Salient features of these linkages are discussed, as is the relationship between the data presented here and previously published genetic and cytogenetic data.
On the basis of comparative studies of known antibody structures and sequences it has been argued that there is a small repertoire of main-chain conformations for at least five of the six hypervariable regions of antibodies, and that the particular conformation adopted is determined by a few key conserved residues. These hypotheses are now supported by(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the major cell-surface initiators of inflammatory responses to pathogens. They bind a wide variety of pathogenic substances through their ectodomains (ECDs). Here, we ask: what is the structural basis for this interaction? Toll-like receptor ECDs comprise 19-25 tandem copies of a motif known as the leucine-rich repeat (LRR).(More)
The crystal structure of the Fab of McPC603, a phosphocholine-binding mouse myeloma protein, has been refined at 2.7 A resolution by a combination of restrained least-squares refinement and molecular modeling. The overall structure remains as previously reported, with an elbow bend angle between the variable and constant modules of 133 degrees. Some(More)
HIV integrase, the enzyme that inserts the viral DNA into the host chromosome, has no mammalian counterpart, making it an attractive target for antiviral drug design. As one of the three enzymes produced by HIV, it can be expected that inhibitors of this enzyme will complement the therapeutic use of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors. We have(More)
A crystal structure for a member of the AraC prokaryotic transcriptional activator family, MarA, in complex with its cognate DNA-binding site is described. MarA consists of two similar subdomains, each containing a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. The two recognition helices of the motifs are inserted into adjacent major groove segments on the same face(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as sentinels of the innate immune system, sensing a variety of ligands from lipopolysaccharide to flagellin to dsRNA through their ligand-binding domain that is composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Ligand binding initiates a signaling cascade that(More)