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Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), used in the treatment of epilepsy, was approved recently for treatment-resistant depression. The mechanisms of action of the VNS anti-depressive effects are not yet fully elucidated. Modulation of hippocampal neurogenesis has been proposed as an important factor in depression pathogenesis. We evaluated the effects of VNS on(More)
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is effective in refractory epilepsy and depression and is being investigated in heart failure, headache, gastric motility disorders and asthma. The first VNS device required surgical implantation of electrodes and a stimulator. Adverse events (AEs) are generally associated with implantation or continuous on-off stimulation.(More)
The main characteristics of dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD) are monotony of pitch and loudness, reduced stress, variable speech rate, imprecise consonants, and breathy and harsh voice. Earlier treatment studies have shown that dysarthria is less responsive to both pharmacological and surgical treatments than other gross motor symptoms. Recent(More)
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