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OBJECTIVE Determine the effects of display viewing distance on both the visual and musculoskeletal systems while the text height is held constant across viewing distances. BACKGROUND The distance from the eyes to a computer display may affect visual and neck comfort. If the angular size of the characters remains the same, it is recommended that the(More)
Work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome, are prevalent among dentists and dental hygienists. An important risk factor for developing these disorders is forceful pinching which occurs during periodontal work such as dental scaling. Ergonomically designed dental scaling instruments may help reduce the(More)
There is increasing evidence that alternative geometry keyboards may prevent or reduce arm pain or disorders, and presumably the mechanism is by reducing awkward arm postures. However, the effect of alternative keyboards, especially the new designs, on wrist and arm postures are not well known. In this laboratory study, the wrist and forearm postures of 100(More)
Split, gabled keyboard designs can prevent or improve upper extremity pain among computer users; the mechanism appears to involve the reduction of awkward wrist and forearm postures. This study evaluated the effects of changes in opening angle, slope and height (independent variables) of a gabled (14 degrees) keyboard on typing performance and upper(More)
OBJECTIVE In this study, we evaluated the effects of key spacing on a conventional computer keyboard on typing speed, percentage error, usability, and forearm muscle activity and wrist posture. BACKGROUND International standards that specify the spacing between keys on a keyboard have been guided primarily by design convention because few studies have(More)
The goal of this study was to determine whether a new dynamic arm support system reduced shoulder and arm muscle load for seated and standing hand/ arm tasks. The new system provides support for both horizontal and vertical arm motion. A total of 11 participants performed ten tasks (five seated and five standing) both with and without the arm support.(More)
The design and selection of 3D modeled hand gestures for human-computer interaction should follow principles of natural language combined with the need to optimize gesture contrast and recognition. The selection should also consider the discomfort and fatigue associated with distinct hand postures and motions, especially for common commands. Sign language(More)
Hand injuries are an important cause of pain and disability among dentists and dental hygienists and may be due to the high pinch forces involved in periodontal work. The pinch forces required to perform scaling may be reduced by increasing the friction between the tool and fingers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether modifying the tool(More)