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The many complex phenotypes of cancer have all been attributed to "somatic mutation." These phenotypes include anaplasia, autonomous growth, metastasis, abnormal cell morphology, DNA indices ranging from 0.5 to over 2, clonal origin but unstable and non-clonal karyotypes and phenotypes, abnormal centrosome numbers, immortality in vitro and in(More)
Genetic and phenotypic instability are hallmarks of cancer cells, but their cause is not clear. The leading hypothesis suggests that a poorly defined gene mutation generates genetic instability and that some of many subsequent mutations then cause cancer. Here we investigate the hypothesis that genetic instability of cancer cells is caused by aneuploidy, an(More)
A century ago, Boveri proposed that cancer is caused by aneuploidy, an abnormal balance of chromosomes, because aneuploidy correlates with cancer and because experimental aneuploidy generates "pathological" phenotypes. Half a century later, when cancers were found to be nonclonal for aneuploidy, but clonal for somatic gene mutations, this hypothesis was(More)
The complexity and diversity of cancer-specific phenotypes, including de-differentiation, invasiveness, metastasis, abnormal morphology and metabolism, genetic instability and progression to malignancy, have so far eluded explanation by a simple, coherent hypothesis. However, an adaptation of Metabolic Control Analysis supports the 100-year-old hypothesis(More)
The microsomal O-deethylation of a novel coumarin analog, 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (EFC), to a fluorescent product was characterized. Results indicate that this analog provides a rapid, convenient and highly sensitive means to assay cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism. Like microsomal 7-ethoxycoumarin (7-EC) O-deethylation, EFC O-deethylation(More)
For nearly a century, cancer has been blamed on somatic mutation. But it is still unclear whether this mutation is aneuploidy, an abnormal balance of chromosomes, or gene mutation. Despite enormous efforts, the currently popular gene mutation hypothesis has failed to identify cancer-specific mutations with transforming function and cannot explain why cancer(More)
The autocatalyzed progression of aneuploidy accounts for all cancer-specific phenotypes, the Hayflick limit of cultured cells, carcinogen-induced tumors in mice, the age distribution of human cancer, and multidrug-resistance. Here aneuploidy theory addresses tumor formation. The logistic equation, phi(n)(+1) = rphi(n) (1 - phi(n)), models the autocatalyzed(More)
A peptidyl fluoromethyl ketone (Z-Phe-Ala CH2F) was found to be an effective compound in a time dependent inactivation of cathepsin B isozymes from a number of tissues including human tumors. The effect was visualized by employing an activity-specific fluorescent print technique preceded by isoelectric focusing. The technique could yield additional(More)
The role of cathepsin B, H and L activities in arthritic processes was studied histochemically using specific synthetic substrates in a postcoupling method on unfixed and undecalcified cryostat sections of rat knee joints. Only cathepsin B in synoviocytes, chondrocytes and fibroblasts showed a strong increase in activity due to antigen induced arthritis.(More)