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The many complex phenotypes of cancer have all been attributed to "somatic mutation." These phenotypes include anaplasia, autonomous growth, metastasis, abnormal cell morphology, DNA indices ranging from 0.5 to over 2, clonal origin but unstable and non-clonal karyotypes and phenotypes, abnormal centrosome numbers, immortality in vitro and in(More)
Genetic and phenotypic instability are hallmarks of cancer cells, but their cause is not clear. The leading hypothesis suggests that a poorly defined gene mutation generates genetic instability and that some of many subsequent mutations then cause cancer. Here we investigate the hypothesis that genetic instability of cancer cells is caused by aneuploidy, an(More)
A century ago, Boveri proposed that cancer is caused by aneuploidy, an abnormal balance of chromosomes, because aneuploidy correlates with cancer and because experimental aneuploidy generates "pathological" phenotypes. Half a century later, when cancers were found to be nonclonal for aneuploidy, but clonal for somatic gene mutations, this hypothesis was(More)
The complexity and diversity of cancer-specific phenotypes, including de-differentiation, invasiveness, metastasis, abnormal morphology and metabolism, genetic instability and progression to malignancy, have so far eluded explanation by a simple, coherent hypothesis. However, an adaptation of Metabolic Control Analysis supports the 100-year-old hypothesis(More)
In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From(More)
The mutagenic ranges of aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, and gene mutation are analyzed for their abilities to cause the dominant phenotypes of cancer. In the cell, activating gene mutations are buffered because virtually all gene products are kinetically linked into biochemical assembly lines and thus functionally controlled by upstream and(More)
Human breast cancer cell lines, as well as transformed mammary epithelial cells (HBL-100) and growth-stimulated normal breast epithelial cells showed positive cytochemical reaction with the proteinase substrate 2-(N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-arginyl-L-arginylamido)-4-methoxynapht halene, in the presence of 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde. The reaction product, small(More)
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