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The body's surfaces form the interface with the external environment, protecting the host. These epithelial barriers are also colonized by a controlled diversity of microorganisms, disturbances of which can give rise to disease. Specialized intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), which reside at these sites, are important as a first line of defense as well as(More)
Both constitutive Ig secretion by long-lived plasma cells (PC) and the recurrent differentiation of memory (mem) B cells into PC contribute to the maintenance of serologic mem. However, the relative contribution of each is unknown. In this study, we describe a novel population of human postswitched mem B cells that rapidly differentiate into PC and thus(More)
Presentation of peptide:MHCII by RORγ-expressing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), which are enriched within gut tissue, is required for control of CD4 T-cell responses to commensal bacteria. It is not known whether ILC populations migrate from their mucosal and peripheral sites to local draining secondary lymphoid tissues. Here we demonstrate that(More)
Inflammatory CD4(+) T cell responses to self or commensal bacteria underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), respectively. Although selection of self-specific T cells in the thymus limits responses to mammalian tissue antigens, the mechanisms that control selection of commensal bacteria-specific T cells remain poorly(More)
The primary immunoglobulin repertoire of chickens is generated not by gene rearrangement but by a subsequent process of gene conversion in proliferating immature B cells within the follicles of a specialized gut-associated lymphoid organ, the bursa of Fabricius. Neonatal infection with infectious bursal disease virus can eliminate almost the entire bursal(More)
During evolutionary adaptation in the immune system, host defense is traded off against autoreactivity. Signals through the costimulatory receptor CD28 enable T cells to respond specifically to pathogens, whereas those through the related costimulatory receptor, ICOS, which arose by gene duplication, are critical for affinity maturation and memory antibody(More)
MicroRNAs (MiRs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally. In this study, we show that MiR-210 is induced by Oct-2, a key transcriptional mediator of B cell activation. Germline deletion of MiR-210 results in the development of autoantibodies from 5 mo of age. Overexpression of MiR-210 in vivo resulted in cell autonomous(More)
RAR-related orphan receptor-γt (ROR-γt) directs differentiation of proinflammatory T helper 17 (TH17) cells and is a potential therapeutic target in chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, ROR-γt-dependent group 3 innate lymphoid cells ILC3s provide essential immunity and tissue protection in the intestine, suggesting that targeting ROR-γt(More)
Phylogeny shows that CD4 T cell memory and lymph nodes coevolved in placental mammals. In ontogeny, retinoic acid orphan receptor (ROR)γ-dependent lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells program the development of mammalian lymph nodes. In this study, we show that although primary CD4 T cell expansion is normal in RORγ-deficient mice, the persistence of memory(More)
Using a novel cDNA microarray prepared from sources of actively responding immune system cells, we have investigated the changes in gene expression in the target tissue during the early stages of infection of neonatal chickens with infectious bursal disease virus. Infections of two lines of chickens previously documented as genetically resistant and(More)