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We determined that two mouse cryptochrome genes, mCry1 and mCry2, act in the negative limb of the clock feedback loop. In cell lines, mPER proteins (alone or in combination) have modest effects on their cellular location and ability to inhibit CLOCK:BMAL1 -mediated transcription. This suggested cryptochrome involvement in the negative limb of the feedback(More)
In mammals, a master circadian "clock" resides in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN clock is composed of multiple, single-cell circadian oscillators, which, when synchronized, generate coordinated circadian outputs that regulate overt rhythms. Eight clock genes have been cloned that are involved in interacting(More)
The pineal hormone melatonin regulates seasonal reproductive function and modulates circadian rhythms in mammals. We now report the cloning and characterization of a high affinity receptor for melatonin from the sheep and human. The receptor cDNAs encode proteins that are members of a newly discovered group within the G protein-coupled receptor family.(More)
The role of mPer1 and mPer2 in regulating circadian rhythms was assessed by disrupting these genes. Mice homozygous for the targeted allele of either mPer1 or mPer2 had severely disrupted locomotor activity rhythms during extended exposure to constant darkness. Clock gene RNA rhythms were blunted in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of mPer2 mutant mice, but not(More)
We have cloned and characterized the mouse cDNA of a third mammalian homolog of the Drosophila period gene and designated it mPer3. The mPER3 protein shows approximately 37% amino acid identity with mPER1 and mPER2 proteins. The three mammalian PER proteins share several regions of sequence homology, and each contains a protein dimerization PAS domain.(More)
A G protein-coupled receptor for the pineal hormone melatonin was recently cloned from mammals and designated the Mel1a melatonin receptor. We now report the cloning of a second G protein-coupled melatonin receptor from humans and designate it the Mel1b melatonin receptor. The Mel1b receptor cDNA encodes a protein of 362 amino acids that is 60% identical at(More)
We show that, in the mouse, the core mechanism for the master circadian clock consists of interacting positive and negative transcription and translation feedback loops. Analysis of Clock/Clock mutant mice, homozygous Period2(Brdm1) mutants, and Cryptochrome-deficient mice reveals substantially altered Bmal1 rhythms, consistent with a dominant role of(More)
We have characterized a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila period gene and designated it Per2. The PER2 protein shows >40% amino acid identity to the protein of another mammalian per homolog (designated Per1) that was recently cloned and characterized. Both PER1 and PER2 proteins share several regions of homology with the Drosophila PER protein, including(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls the circadian rhythm of physiological and behavioural processes in mammals. Here we show that prokineticin 2 (PK2), a cysteine-rich secreted protein, functions as an output molecule from the SCN circadian clock. PK2 messenger RNA is rhythmically expressed in the SCN, and the phase of PK2 rhythm is responsive to(More)