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Adaptation of saphenous vein to the hemodynamic stresses of the arterial circulation is critical to the maturation of vein bypass grafts. We have investigated early adaptive responses of venous endothelium by placing excised human saphenous vein in a bypass circuit with either venous or arterial flow conditions, using external stenting to resolve the(More)
The cutaneous innervation is now known to contain neuropeptides including substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory nerves, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), principally in autonomic nerves. Skin biopsies from 100 leprosy patients and equivalent areas from 50 non-leprosy controls were fixed in(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a mediator of vasodilatation and bronchodilatation synthesised from L-arginine by the enzyme NO synthase, which is either constitutive or induced by lipopolysaccharides and/or cytokines. The presence and function of NO synthase in normal or diseased lung is not yet clear. Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness,(More)
Although the production of NO within rodent phagocytes is well-characterized, its production and function within human phagocytes are less clear. We show here that neutrophils within human buffy coat preparations stimulated with a mixture of interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma contain inducible NO synthase mRNA and protein, one(More)
The cutaneous nerves of rat, cat, guinea pig, pig, and man were studied by immunocytochemistry to compare the staining potency of general neural markers and to investigate the density of nerves containing peptides. Antiserum to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) stained more nerves than antisera to neurofilaments, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and(More)
The origins of sensory innervation of the lower respiratory tract are thought to be principally the nodose and jugular ganglia of the vagus nerve. It has been suggested and partially demonstrated that there is also a component arising from dorsal root ganglia, but the segmental levels involved are not known precisely. We have therefore investigated the(More)
Feto-placental vessels lack innervation, hence control of this circulation is dependent on locally produced and circulating vasoactive factors. Functional studies have presented evidence that nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator and platelet anti-aggregating agent, may be generated into the feto-placental circulation, contributing to control of vascular tone.(More)
The mammalian respiratory tract contains innervated groups of endocrine cells which are believed to respond to hypoxia. We have demonstrated the involvement of a specific regulatory peptide produced by the cells, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), in this response. Cells immunoreactive for CGRP or for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), a general(More)
Image-analysis was used to measure nerves immunoreactive to the general neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5-IR) and the neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in standardised leg skin biopsies of three age-matched groups of young subjects: non-diabetic (n = 14), diabetic patients with normal small(More)
The mammalian respiratory tract is densely innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves around airways and blood vessels. Subsets of these nerves contain a number of putative neurotransmitter peptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory nerves and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), possibly serving autonomic(More)