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One key to malignant progression is the acquired ability of tumor cells to escape immune-mediated lysis. Whereas tumor hypoxia is known to play a causal role in cancer metastasis and resistance to therapy, the link between hypoxia and immune escape in cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we show that hypoxia induces tumor cell resistance to lysis(More)
Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer in which mechanistic knowledge is incomplete. Here, we describe a novel mechanism by which hypoxia contributes to tumoral immune escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Exposure of human or murine cancer cells to hypoxia for 24 hours led to upregulation of the immune inhibitory molecule programmed cell death(More)
BACKGROUND An observed decrease of physician scientists in medical practice has generated much recent interest in increasing the exposure of research programs in medical school. The aim of this study was to review the experience and attitudes regarding research by medical students in Canada. METHODS An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire(More)
An important aspect of malignant progression is the acquired ability of tumor cells to avoid recognition and destruction by the immune system (immune escape). Clinical cancer progression is also associated with the development of tumor hypoxia, which is mechanistically linked to the acquisition of malignant phenotypes in cancer cells. Despite the(More)
The ability of tumor cells to avoid immune destruction (immune escape) as well as their acquired resistance to anti-cancer drugs constitute important barriers to the successful management of cancer. Interaction between the Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) on the surface of tumor cells with the Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) receptor on cytotoxic T lymphocytes(More)
In this paper we propose a new feature, average Higuchi dimension of RF time series (AHDRFT), for detection of prostate cancer using ultrasound data. The proposed feature is extracted from RF echo signals acquired from prostate tissue in an in vitro setting and is used in combination with texture features extracted from the corresponding B-scan images. In a(More)
One key to malignant progression is the acquired ability of tumor cells to escape immune-mediated lysis. Whereas tumor hypoxia is known to play a causal role in cancer metastasis and resistance to therapy, the link between hypoxia and immune escape in cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we show that hypoxia induces tumor cell resistance to lysis(More)
We present the results of an animal tissue characterization study to demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel approach in collecting and analyzing ultrasound echo signals. In this approach, we continuously record RF echo signals backscattered from a tissue sample, while the imaging probe and the tissue are fixed in position. The continuously recorded RF(More)