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The 2.05 angstrom (A) resolution crystal structure of a dodecasaccharide-Fab complex revealed an unusual carbohydrate recognition site, defined by aromatic amino acids and a structured water molecule, rather than the carboxylic acid and amide side chains and a structured water molecule, rather than the carboxylic acid and amide side chains that are features(More)
To determine factors that predispose or protect healthcare workers from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), we conducted a retrospective cohort study among 43 nurses who worked in two Toronto critical care units with SARS patients. Eight of 32 nurses who entered a SARS patient's room were infected. The probability of SARS infection was 6% per shift(More)
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic(More)
We discuss a facile and sensitive method of determining conformational differences based on the changes in the phi and psi angle values between chemically identical proteins in different conformations. It complements the conventional r.m.s. deviation technique, but offers some advantages. Two classes of conformational difference can be distinguished by this(More)
Soil microbial diversity represents the largest global reservoir of novel microorganisms and enzymes. In this study, we coupled functional metagenomics and DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using multiple plant-derived carbon substrates and diverse soils to characterize active soil bacterial communities and their glycoside hydrolase genes, which have(More)
Oncogenic signaling promotes tumor invasion and metastasis, in part, by increasing the expression of tri- and tetra- branched N-glycans. The branched N-glycans bind to galectins forming a multivalent lattice that enhances cell surface residency of growth factor receptors, and focal adhesion turnover. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (MGAT1), the first(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to identify when diagnostic testing and empirical antiviral therapy should be considered for adult patients requiring hospitalization during influenza seasons. During the 2007/8 influenza season, six acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area participated in active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza(More)
Five cases of intestinal toxemia botulism in adults were identified within an 18-month period in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We describe findings for 3 of the 5 case-patients. Clinical samples contained Clostridium botulinum spores and botulinum neurotoxins (types A and B) for extended periods (range 41-61 days), indicative of intestinal toxemia(More)
Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce(More)
This report summarizes the events of the 1(st) International Functional Metagenomics Workshop. The workshop was held on May 7 and 8, 2012, in St. Jacobs, Ontario, Canada and was focused on building an international functional metagenomics community, exploring strategic research areas, and identifying opportunities for future collaboration and funding. The(More)