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BACKGROUND Patients with acromegaly are currently treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and drugs to reduce hypersecretion of growth hormone, but the treatments may be ineffective and have adverse effects. Pegvisomant is a genetically engineered growth hormone-receptor antagonist that blocks the action of growth hormone. METHODS We conducted a 12-week,(More)
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic(More)
The C-terminal module of the thermostable Thermotoga maritima xylanase 10A (CBM9-2) is a family 9 carbohydrate-binding module that binds to amorphous and crystalline cellulose and a range of soluble di- and monosaccharides as well as to cello and xylo oligomers of different degrees of polymerization [Boraston, A. B., Creagh, A. L., Alam, Md. M., Kormos, J.(More)
Human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) is one of the two enzymes responsible for catalyzing the last glucose-releasing step in starch digestion. MGAM is anchored to the small-intestinal brush-border epithelial cells and contains two homologous glycosyl hydrolase family 31 catalytic subunits: an N-terminal subunit (NtMGAM) found near the membrane-bound end and a(More)
Carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) family 13 includes the "R-type" or "ricin superfamily" beta-trefoil lectins. The C-terminal CBM, CBM13, of xylanase 10A from Streptomyces lividans is a family 13 CBM that is not only structurally similar to the "R-type" lectins but also somewhat functionally similar. The primary function of CBM13 is to bind the(More)
The ABC transporter, P-glycoprotein, is an integral membrane protein that mediates the ATP-driven efflux of drugs from multidrug-resistant cancer and HIV-infected cells. Anti-P-glycoprotein antibody C219 binds to both of the ATP-binding regions of P-glycoprotein and has been shown to inhibit its ATPase activity and drug binding capacity. C219 has been(More)
The detailed mechanistic aspects for the final starch digestion process leading to effective alpha-glucogenesis by the 2 mucosal alpha-glucosidases, human sucrase-isomaltase complex (SI) and human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), are poorly understood. This is due to the structural complexity and vast variety of starches and their intermediate digestion(More)
Eukaryotic N-glycoprotein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum begins with the catalytic action of processing α-glucosidase I (αGlu). αGlu trims the terminal glucose from nascent glycoproteins in an inverting-mechanism glycoside hydrolysis reaction. αGlu has been studied in terms of kinetic parameters and potential key residues; however, the active site(More)
Carbohydrate-binding polypeptides, including carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) from polysaccharidases, and lectins, are widespread in nature. Whilst CBMs are classically considered distinct from lectins, in that they are found appended to polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, this distinction is blurring. The crystal structure of CsCBM6-3, a "sequence-family(More)