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OBJECTIVES Data from the Western Collaborative Group Study were used to determine the extent to which the inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality can be explained by risk factors for major causes of mortality. METHODS The relation of education and income to subsequent mortality was studied in 3154 employed, middle-aged men(More)
Dichotomizing a continuous outcome variable casts that variable in traditional epidemiologic terms (that is, disease, no disease). One consequence is overall reduced statistical power. A more fundamental concern is that the magnitude of various measures of association (for example, prevalence ratio, odds ratio) and statistical power depend on the cutpoint(More)
BACKGROUND To understand the consequences of driving cessation in older adults, the authors evaluated depression in former drivers compared with active drivers. METHODS Depression (as assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), driving status, sociodemographic factors, health status, and cognitive function were evaluated for a(More)
BACKGROUND Physical activity is recommended by physicians to patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), because it increases sensitivity to insulin. Whether physical activity is effective in preventing this disease is not known. METHODS We used questionnaires to examine patterns of physical activity and other personal characteristics(More)
The presence of concurrent health conditions (comorbidity) at the time of breast cancer diagnosis has an adverse effect on survival. It is unclear, however, whether the strength of the association between comorbidity and survival varies in different populations of breast cancer patients. It is necessary, therefore, to establish (1) whether a comorbidity(More)
STUDY DESIGN Five-year prospective cohort study of 1449 transit operators. OBJECTIVES To investigate psychosocial job factors as predictors of work-related spinal injuries, controlling for current and past physical workload. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The association between psychosocial job factors and spinal disorders may be confounded by physical(More)
STUDY DESIGN This study critically reviewed current conceptualizations of occupational disability resulting from low back pain (LBP). It proposes a new classification system for back pain built on a phase-model of disability. OBJECTIVES The goal was to develop a classification system that overcomes the shortcomings of existing classification schemes and(More)
Eighty-one observational work analyses were conducted to measure stressors independently of worker appraisal in the San Francisco transit system. On the basis of action regulation theory, stress factors were defined as hindrances for task performance due to poor work organization or technological design. Stressors included (a) work barriers, defined as(More)
OBJECTIVES In this study we tested the association between occupational stress--as measured by job demands, decision latitude, and job strain--and hypertension in a population of 1396 Black and White bus drivers. METHODS Height, weight, blood pressure, and medical history were assessed by physical exam. Drivers completed a questionnaire assessing their(More)
The authors used observational job analysis as a conceptually based technique to measure stress factors unbiased by worker appraisal with 81 transit driving tasks on 27 transit lines. Stressor dimensions included work barriers that interfere with task performance due to poor technical-organizational design, time pressure, time binding (autonomy over time(More)