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We provide an updated version of the Compendium of Physical Activities, a coding scheme that classifies specific physical activity (PA) by rate of energy expenditure. It was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-reports of PA. The Compendium coding scheme links a five-digit code that describes physical activities by(More)
For decades, studies of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have challenged traditional concepts in toxicology, in particular the dogma of "the dose makes the poison," because EDCs can have effects at low doses that are not predicted by effects at higher doses. Here, we review two major concepts in EDC studies: low dose and nonmonotonicity. Low-dose(More)
BACKGROUND Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to cardiovascular disease, possibly via accelerated atherosclerosis. We examined associations between the progression of the intima-medial thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery, as an indicator of atherosclerosis, and long-term PM2.5 concentrations in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between reported intakes of dietary fat and incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied the relation between dietary fatty acids and diabetes in a prospective cohort study of 35,988 older women who initially did not have diabetes. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at baseline,(More)
Ambient levels of particulate matter have been linked to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms mediating these associations are poorly understood. One candidate mechanism is inflammation. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2002), the authors investigated the relation between exposure to particulate matter of less than or equal(More)
BACKGROUND Low doses of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) associate cross-sectionally with type 2 diabetes, whereas associations with high POP exposures are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES We investigated whether several POPs prospectively predict type 2 diabetes within the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVES Using data from a large cohort of adults aged 45 to 84 years-old, we investigated whether availability of recreational resources is related to physical activity levels. METHODS Data from a multiethnic sample of 2723 adult residents of New York City, NY; Baltimore, Md; and Forsyth County, NC, were linked to data on locations of recreational(More)
BACKGROUND A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of(More)
OBJECTIVE Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), lipophilic chemicals that accumulate mainly in adipose tissue, have recently been linked to type 2 diabetes. However, evidence from prospective studies is sparse. This study was performed to evaluate prospective associations of type 2 diabetes with selected POPs among the elderly. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. OBJECTIVE We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs)(More)