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Cell proliferation, cell death, and pattern formation are coordinated in animal development. Although many proteins that control cell proliferation and apoptosis have been identified, the means by which these effectors are linked to the patterning machinery remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the bantam gene of Drosophila encodes a 21 nucleotide(More)
Resistance to drugs included in the multidrug-resistance phenotype has been attributed to overexpression of either mdr1 or MRP genes and their products in numerous cell lines, while coexpression, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported in the same cells. Human small cell lung cancer H69/VP cells were developed by continuous incubation in(More)
Cell proliferation and programmed cell death are closely controlled during animal development. Proliferative stimuli generally also induce apoptosis, and anti-apoptotic factors are required to allow net cell proliferation. Genetic studies in Drosophila have led to identification of a number of genes that control both processes, providing new insights into(More)
Dynamic regulation of cytoskeletal contractility through phosphorylation of the nonmuscle Myosin-II regulatory light chain (MRLC) provides an essential source of tension for shaping epithelial tissues. Rho GTPase and its effector kinase ROCK have been implicated in regulating MRLC phosphorylation in vivo, but evidence suggests that other mechanisms must be(More)
Multidrug resistance protein, MRP, is a 190-kDa integral membrane phosphoglycoprotein that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transport proteins and is capable of conferring resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents. Previous studies have indicated that MRP consists of two membrane spanning domains (MSD) each followed by a nucleotide(More)
The acquisition of the multidrug resistance phenotype in human tumours is associated with an overexpression of the 170 kDa P-glycoprotein encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, and also with a 190 kDa membrane ATP-binding protein encoded by a multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) gene. Human bladder cancer is a highly malignant neoplasm(More)
Amplification of the gene encoding multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and overexpression of its cognate mRNA have been detected in multidrug-resistant cell lines derived from several different tumor types. To establish whether or not the increase in MRP is responsible for drug resistance in these cell lines, we have transfected HeLa cells with(More)
MRP is a M(r) 190,000 integral membrane phosphoglycoprotein that is overexpressed in some drug-selected resistant cell lines and has been shown to cause multidrug resistance in transfected cells. Five murine hybridoma cell lines (QCRL-1, QCRL-2, QCRL-3, QCRL-4, and QCRL-6) have been generated which secrete monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that react(More)
Inherent or acquired resistance to multiple natural product drugs in human tumour cells is often associated with increased expression of multidrug resistance protein (MRP), a 190-kDa integral membrane protein that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport proteins. Both clinical and experimental investigations of MRP have been(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is essential for normal growth, patterning, and homeostasis of many tissues in diverse organisms, and is misregulated in a variety of diseases including cancer. Cytoplasmic Hedgehog signaling is activated by multisite phosphorylation of the seven-pass transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) in its cytoplasmic C-terminus. Aside from a(More)