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The adipose-derived hormone leptin communicates information about metabolic status to the hypothalamic GnRH neuronal system. It is unclear whether leptin can act directly on GnRH neurons. To examine this, we used three approaches. First, the presence of leptin-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation was examined in GnRH neurons(More)
Pregnancy in the rat is a state of leptin resistance associated with impaired leptin signal transduction in the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to determine whether this leptin-resistant state is mediated by a change in the level of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Real-time RT-PCR was used to determine levels of mRNA for the various leptin(More)
This study investigated whether the PRL surge that precedes parturition is accompanied by a decrease in activity of hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons, as occurs during the PRL surges of early pregnancy. Serial blood samples were collected at regular intervals during early and late pregnancy via chronic indwelling jugular cannulae, and(More)
High prolactin during pregnancy, which is essential for normal postpartum maternal behavior, increases neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) of the maternal brain. Because SVZ mitogenesis generates new olfactory neurons and may contribute to perception of novel odorants, we hypothesized that the prolactin-induced increase in(More)
The neuroendocrine control of prolactin secretion is unlike that of any other pituitary hormone. It is predominantly inhibited by the hypothalamus and, in the absence of a regulatory feedback hormone, it acts directly in the brain to suppress its own secretion. In addition to this short-loop feedback action in the brain, prolactin has been reported to(More)
Prolactin is required for rapid onset of maternal behavior after parturition, inducing adaptive changes in the maternal brain including enhanced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone during pregnancy. The resultant increase in olfactory interneurons may be required for altered processing of olfactory cues during the establishment of maternal behavior.(More)
The hormone leptin modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including energy homeostasis and reproduction. Leptin promotes GnRH function via an indirect action on forebrain neurons. We tested whether leptin deficiency or leptin resistance due to a high-fat diet (HFD) can regulate the potent reproductive neuropeptide kisspeptin. In mice with(More)
Although there is extensive evidence for effects of prolactin (PRL) on the brain, knowledge about the PRL receptor (PRL-R) in the brain is limited. By using monoclonal antibodies raised against purified rat liver PRL-R, the distribution of PRL-R was investigated by immunohistochemistry in brains of the estrogen-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E) rat and the(More)
A cerebral growth hormone axis is activated following brain injury in the rat and treatment with growth hormone is neuroprotective. We have now investigated whether the closely related prolactin axis has similar properties following injury to the developing rat brain. From one day following a unilateral hypoxic ischemic injury, prolactin immunoreactivity(More)
Prolactin has numerous biological actions in the brain, and transgenic mice are increasingly being used to investigate these actions. The present study aimed to provide a detailed mapping of the prolactin-responsive neurons in the female mouse forebrain by describing the distribution of prolactin receptor mRNA by in situ hybridization, and measuring(More)