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One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of(More)
Survival and genome stability are critical characteristics of healthy cells. DNA palindromes pose a threat to genome stability and have been shown to participate in a reaction leading to the formation of inverted chromosome duplications centered around themselves. There is considerable interest in the mechanism of this rearrangement given its likely(More)
Homologous recombination provides a mechanism of DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) that requires an intact, homologous template for DNA synthesis. When DNA synthesis associated with DSBR is convergent, the broken DNA strands are replaced and repair is accurate. However, if divergent DNA synthesis is established, over-replication of flanking DNA may(More)
It has long been known that the 5' to 3' polarity of DNA synthesis results in both a leading and lagging strand at all replication forks. Until now, however, there has been no evidence that leading or lagging strands are spatially organized in any way within a cell. Here we show that chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli is not random but is driven in(More)
Hairpin structures can inhibit DNA replication and are intermediates in certain recombination reactions. We have shown that the purified SbcCD protein of Escherichia coli cleaves a DNA hairpin. This cleavage does not require the presence of a free (3' or 5') DNA end and generates products with 3'-hydroxyl and 5'-phosphate termini. Electron microscopy of(More)
The SbcCD protein is a member of a group of nucleases found in bacteriophage T4 and T5, eubacteria, archaebacteria, yeast, Drosophila, mouse and man. Evidence from electron microscopy has revealed a distinctive structure consisting of two globular domains linked by a long region of coiled coil, similar to that predicted for the members of the SMC family.(More)
High-throughput studies of the 6,200 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided valuable data resources. However, these resources require a return to experimental analysis to test predictions. An in-silico screen, mining existing interaction, expression, localization, and phenotype datasets was developed with the aim of selecting minimally(More)
The sbcC gene product of Escherichia coli interferes with the growth of a lambda red gam phage carrying a long palindrome in its DNA. This phenotype was used to identify recombinant plasmids harbouring the wild-type gene and to isolate sbcC mutant derivatives carrying Tn1000 insertions. Analysis of these plasmids located sbcC between proC and phoR at a(More)
In Escherichia coli in vitro constructions of perfect palindromes larger than 30 base pairs (bp) long have in general been unstable. A perfect palindrome has the unique possibility of forming a cruciform structure, and it is this feature which probably results in its instability. Negative supercoiling favours the formation of the cruciform conformation,(More)
DNA double-strand breaks can be repaired by homologous recombination involving the formation and resolution of Holliday junctions. In Escherichia coli, the RuvABC resolvasome and the RecG branch-migration enzyme have been proposed to act in alternative pathways for the resolution of Holliday junctions. Here, we have studied the requirements for RuvABC and(More)