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One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of(More)
Long DNA palindromes are sites of genome instability (deletions, amplification, and translocations) in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In Escherichia coli, genetic evidence has suggested that they are sites of DNA cleavage by the SbcCD complex that can be repaired by homologous recombination. Here we obtain in vivo physical evidence of an(More)
Bacterial genomes are remarkably stable from one generation to the next but are plastic on an evolutionary time scale, substantially shaped by horizontal gene transfer, genome rearrangement, and the activities of mobile DNA elements. This implies the existence of a delicate balance between the maintenance of genome stability and the tolerance of genome(More)
The Holliday junction is a central intermediate in homologous recombination. It consists of a four-way structure that can be resolved by cleavage to give either the crossover or noncrossover products observed. We show here that the formation of these products is controlled by the E. coli resolvasome (RuvABC) in such way that double-strand break repair(More)
A portable unit was developed to provide uniform irradiation of the human testes. The device had built-in radiological protection and provided a dosage independent of the subject geometry, uniform to within +or- 5%. Single doses, between 8-600 rad were administered to the testes of human subjects. Observations were made both before and following(More)
  • D R Leach
  • 1994
Long DNA palindromes pose a threat to genome stability. This instability is primarily mediated by slippage on the lagging strand of the replication fork between short directly repeated sequences close to the ends of the palindrome. The role of the palindrome is likely to be the juxtaposition of the directly repeated sequences by intra-strand base-pairing.(More)
Mre11-Rad50 (MR) proteins are encoded by bacteriophage, eubacterial, archeabacterial and eukaryotic genomes, and form a complex with a remarkable protein architecture. This complex is capable of tethering the ends of DNA molecules, possesses a variety of DNA nuclease, helicase, ATPase and annealing activities, and performs a wide range of functions within(More)
Homologous recombination provides a mechanism of DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) that requires an intact, homologous template for DNA synthesis. When DNA synthesis associated with DSBR is convergent, the broken DNA strands are replaced and repair is accurate. However, if divergent DNA synthesis is established, over-replication of flanking DNA may(More)
Understanding molecular mechanisms in the context of living cells requires the development of new methods of in vivo biochemical analysis to complement established in vitro biochemistry. A critically important molecular mechanism is genetic recombination, required for the beneficial reassortment of genetic information and for DNA double-strand break repair(More)
A potentially lethal form of DNA/RNA modification, a cleavage complex, occurs when a nucleic acid-processing enzyme that acts via a transient covalent intermediate becomes trapped at its site of action. A number of overlapping pathways act to repair these lesions and many of the enzymes involved are those that catalyze recombinational-repair processes. A(More)