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One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of(More)
Long DNA palindromes are sites of genome instability (deletions, amplification, and translocations) in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In Escherichia coli, genetic evidence has suggested that they are sites of DNA cleavage by the SbcCD complex that can be repaired by homologous recombination. Here we obtain in vivo physical evidence of an(More)
Mre11-Rad50 (MR) proteins are encoded by bacteriophage, eubacterial, archeabacterial and eukaryotic genomes, and form a complex with a remarkable protein architecture. This complex is capable of tethering the ends of DNA molecules, possesses a variety of DNA nuclease, helicase, ATPase and annealing activities, and performs a wide range of functions within(More)
Bacterial genomes are remarkably stable from one generation to the next but are plastic on an evolutionary time scale, substantially shaped by horizontal gene transfer, genome rearrangement, and the activities of mobile DNA elements. This implies the existence of a delicate balance between the maintenance of genome stability and the tolerance of genome(More)
A potentially lethal form of DNA/RNA modification, a cleavage complex, occurs when a nucleic acid-processing enzyme that acts via a transient covalent intermediate becomes trapped at its site of action. A number of overlapping pathways act to repair these lesions and many of the enzymes involved are those that catalyze recombinational-repair processes. A(More)
BACKGROUND Long DNA palindromes have the potential to adopt hairpin or cruciform secondary structures that inhibit DNA replication. In Escherichia coli, this palindrome-mediated inviability results from the activity of the sbcC and sbcD genes, and genetic observations have suggested that they may encode a nuclease. Mutations in these genes also restore the(More)
A portable unit was developed to provide uniform irradiation of the human testes. The device had built-in radiological protection and provided a dosage independent of the subject geometry, uniform to within +or- 5%. Single doses, between 8-600 rad were administered to the testes of human subjects. Observations were made both before and following(More)
The Holliday junction is a central intermediate in homologous recombination. It consists of a four-way structure that can be resolved by cleavage to give either the crossover or noncrossover products observed. We show here that the formation of these products is controlled by the E. coli resolvasome (RuvABC) in such way that double-strand break repair(More)
One of the major goals of tumor immunotherapy is the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses that will be effective in eradicating disseminated tumors. Emerging information on the role of costimulatory molecules in T-cell activation offers several new strategies for enhancing antitumor responses, including the induction of expression of costimulatory(More)