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The Java Modeling Language (JML) can be used to specify the detailed design of Java classes and interfaces by adding annotations to Java source files. The aim of JML is to provide a specification language that is easy to use for Java programmers and that is supported by a wide range of tools for specification typechecking, runtime debugging, static(More)
Data miners can infer rules showing how to improve either (a) the effort estimates of a project or (b) the defect predictions of a software module. Such studies often exhibit conclusion instability regarding what is the most effective action for different projects or modules.
Existing research is unclear on how to generate lessons learned for defect prediction and effort estimation. Should we seek lessons that are global to multiple projects or just local to particular projects? This paper aims to comparatively evaluate local versus global lessons learned for effort estimation and defect prediction. We applied automated(More)
Specifications that are used in detailed design and in the documentation of existing code are primarily written and read by programmers. However, most formal specification languages either make heavy use of symbolic mathematical operators, which discourages use by programmers , or limit assertions to expressions of the underlying programming language, which(More)
Background: Do we always need complex methods for software effort estimation (SEE)? Aim: To characterize the essential content of SEE data, i.e., the least number of features and instances required to capture the information within SEE data. If the essential content is very small, then 1) the contained information must be very brief and 2) the value added(More)
Despite the current effort to implement the Java Modeling Language for Java 1.5, and in particular for generic types, there has been no analysis of the effect of such a transition on JML itself, nor of what language changes should be implemented to take best advantage of the features of current Java. This paper analyzes the interactions between JML and the(More)
After 8 years of SMT Competitions, the SMT Steering Committee decided, for 2013, to sponsor an evaluation of the status of SMT benchmarks and solvers, rather than another competition. This report summarizes the results of the evaluation, conducted by the authors. The key observations are that (1) the competition results are quite sensitive to randomness and(More)