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Changes in medical practice that limit instruction time and patient availability, the expanding options for diagnosis and management, and advances in technology are contributing to greater use of simulation technology in medical education. Four areas of high-technology simulations currently being used are laparoscopic techniques, which provide surgeons with(More)
In contrast to most well-studied model organisms, planarians have a remarkable ability to completely regenerate a functional nervous system from a pluripotent stem cell population. Thus, planarians provide a powerful model to identify genes required for adult neurogenesis in vivo. We analyzed the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription(More)
The prion protein (PrPc) is a normal cellular protein expressed by neurones and astrocytes. An altered isoform, PrPSc is thought to transmit spongiform encephalopathies. Here we show that microglia also express PrPc. Sensitivity of microglia to activation is enhanced by increased expression of PrPc. Bacterial endotoxin increases superoxide production and(More)
A considerable body of evidence suggests that UV light disrupts ligand binding in vitro. In vivo, UV light effects have been reported to disrupt simple behaviors such as spontaneous locomotor activity. However, there are no reports of UV light blocking a more complex drug-altered behavior. We now report that: (1) cocaine dose-relatedly reversed planarians'(More)
Opioids and cannabinoids have profound inhibitory actions on intestinal motility which are mediated in part by their cognate receptors in the enteric nervous system. In the present study, we examined the expression of immunoreactivity for delta- and kappa-opioid receptors, CB(1)-cannabinoid receptors and type 1 vanilloid receptors by immunocytochemistry and(More)
Interactions of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) with blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in conscious rats while they rested quietly in a cloth sock (n = 7), roamed freely in their home cage (n = 6), and then after anesthesia with pentobarbital (30 mg/kg; n = 7). The power and coherence spectra below 3 Hz were calculated from data(More)
Severe spinal cord injuries above mid-thoracic levels can lead to a potentially life-threatening hypertensive condition termed autonomic dysreflexia, which is often triggered by painful distension of pelvic viscera (bladder or bowel) and consequent sensory fiber activation, including nociceptive C-fibers. Interruption of tonically active medullo-spinal(More)
Prion diseases are considered to be transmissible. The existence of sporadic forms of prion diseases such as scrapie implies an environmental source for the infectious agent. This would suggest that under certain conditions the prion protein, the accepted agent of transmission, can survive in the environment. We have developed a novel technique to extract(More)
The porcine intestinal tract possesses functional and pathological similarities to the human digestive tract and the organization of the porcine enteric nervous system, like that of the human, appears to be more complex than that of commonly investigated guinea-pig intestine. Intrinsic primary afferent neurones appear to differ in the intestines of large(More)
Acetylcholine is present in a majority of submucosal neurons which project to the intestinal epithelium. In this study, we examined the role of acetylcholine and the actions of cholinomimetic drugs, such as carbachol (CCH), on ion transport across muscle-stripped sheets of mucosa-submucosa from the proximal jejunum of weaned piglets. Serosal administration(More)