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Some of the most long-standing questions in paleoanthropology concern how and why human bipedalism evolved. Over the last century, many hypotheses have been offered on the mode of locomotion from which bipedalism originated. Candidate ancestral adaptations include monkey-like arboreal or terrestrial quadrupedalism, gibbon- or orangutan-like (or other forms(More)
Phalangeal curvature has frequently been used as a proxy indicator of fossil hominoid and hominin positional behavior and locomotor adaptations, both independently and within the context of broader discussions of the postcranium as a whole. This study used high-resolution polynomial curve fitting (HR-PCF) to measure the shaft curvature of fragmentary(More)
Engelswies is an early Miocene vertebrate locality in southern Germany with a rich assemblage of terrestrial mammals, invertebrates and fossil plants. It is dated to 16.5-17.0 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy, and includes among the faunal remains a hominoid upper molar fragment, the oldest hominoid so far identified(More)
Fossil primates have been known from the late Miocene locality of Rudabánya since 1965. Numerous campaigns of collecting, sampling and excavation have been carried out since that time by several teams of researchers, but the sample of primates has never been fully catalogued and published. Here we provide a comprehensive list of all primate specimens from(More)
Miocene hominoids from Europe are among the earliest members of the great ape and human clade (the Hominidae). One of these forms, represented by well-preserved cranial remains from Rudabánya, Hungary, sheds new light on the question of the evolutionary relations among living hominids. This new evidence supports the view that humans have a specific(More)
Our understanding of locomotor evolution in anthropoid primates has been limited to those taxa for which good postcranial fossil material and appropriate modern analogues are available. We report the results of an analysis of semicircular canal size variation in 16 fossil anthropoid species dating from the Late Eocene to the Late Miocene, and use these data(More)
Russon, Begun, and the other distinguished contributors to this volume take on one of the most vexing and intriguing questions in science today, namely, the origins and functions of intelligence in great apes and humans. The volume begins and ends with insightful summaries and reviews of what is currently understood about the cognitive abilities of great(More)
Sivapithecus is a Miocene great ape from South Asia that is orangutan-like cranially but is distinctive postcranially. Work by others shows that the humerus resembles large terrestrial cercopithecoids proximally and suspensory hominoids distally, but most functional interpretations nevertheless situate Sivapithecus in an arboreal setting. We present a new(More)
A newly reconstructed cranium (RUD 77) of the Miocene fossil hominoid Dryopithecus, formerly Rudapithecus (Kretzoi [1969] Symp. Biol. Hung. 9:3-11; Begun and Kordos [1993] J. Hum. Evol. 25:271-286) is presented here. This specimen, from the late Miocene locality of Rudabánya, in northeastern Hungary, consists of portions of the neurocranium, face, and(More)