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Some of the most long-standing questions in paleoanthropology concern how and why human bipedalism evolved. Over the last century, many hypotheses have been offered on the mode of locomotion from which bipedalism originated. Candidate ancestral adaptations include monkey-like arboreal or terrestrial quadrupedalism, gibbon- or orangutan-like (or other forms(More)
Miocene hominoids from Europe are among the earliest members of the great ape and human clade (the Hominidae). One of these forms, represented by well-preserved cranial remains from Rudabánya, Hungary, sheds new light on the question of the evolutionary relations among living hominids. This new evidence supports the view that humans have a specific(More)
Engelswies is an early Miocene vertebrate locality in southern Germany with a rich assemblage of terrestrial mammals, invertebrates and fossil plants. It is dated to 16.5-17.0 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy, and includes among the faunal remains a hominoid upper molar fragment, the oldest hominoid so far identified(More)
Phalangeal curvature has frequently been used as a proxy indicator of fossil hominoid and hominin positional behavior and locomotor adaptations, both independently and within the context of broader discussions of the postcranium as a whole. This study used high-resolution polynomial curve fitting (HR-PCF) to measure the shaft curvature of fragmentary(More)
The sample of Anapithecus from Rudabánya, Hungary, is remarkable in preserving a large number of immature individuals. We used perikymata counts, measurements of root length and cuspal enamel thickness, and observations of the sequence of tooth germs that cross match specific developmental stages in Anapithecus to construct the first composite picture and(More)
Fossil primates have been known from the late Miocene locality of Rudabánya since 1965. Numerous campaigns of collecting, sampling and excavation have been carried out since that time by several teams of researchers, but the sample of primates has never been fully catalogued and published. Here we provide a comprehensive list of all primate specimens from(More)
  • D R Begun
  • 1992
A major contribution of previous analyses of Miocene hominoid postcrania is the recognition of a great ape grade of locomotor morphology in the late Miocene. However, in the absence of a consideration of the taxonomic and phylogenetic implications of the specimens concerned, the importance of this conclusion remains unappreciated. This paper presents a(More)
In 1871, Darwin famously opined, "In each great region of the world the living mammals are closely related to the extinct species of the same region. It is therefore probable that Africa was formerly inhabited by extinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and chimpanzee; and as these two species are now man's nearest allies, it is somewhat more probable(More)