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Some of the most long-standing questions in paleoanthropology concern how and why human bipedalism evolved. Over the last century, many hypotheses have been offered on the mode of locomotion from which bipedalism originated. Candidate ancestral adaptations include monkey-like arboreal or terrestrial quadrupedalism, gibbon- or orangutan-like (or other forms(More)
A newly reconstructed cranium (RUD 77) of the Miocene fossil hominoid Dryopithecus, formerly Rudapithecus (Kretzoi [1969] Symp. Biol. Hung. 9:3-11; Begun and Kordos [1993] J. Hum. Evol. 25:271-286) is presented here. This specimen, from the late Miocene locality of Rudabánya, in northeastern Hungary, consists of portions of the neurocranium, face, and(More)
Phalangeal curvature has frequently been used as a proxy indicator of fossil hominoid and hominin positional behavior and locomotor adaptations, both independently and within the context of broader discussions of the postcranium as a whole. This study used high-resolution polynomial curve fitting (HR-PCF) to measure the shaft curvature of fragmentary(More)
Fossil primates have been known from the late Miocene locality of Rudabánya since 1965. Numerous campaigns of collecting, sampling and excavation have been carried out since that time by several teams of researchers, but the sample of primates has never been fully catalogued and published. Here we provide a comprehensive list of all primate specimens from(More)
Sivapithecus is a Miocene great ape from South Asia that is orangutan-like cranially but is distinctive postcranially. Work by others shows that the humerus resembles large terrestrial cercopithecoids proximally and suspensory hominoids distally, but most functional interpretations nevertheless situate Sivapithecus in an arboreal setting. We present a new(More)
Our understanding of locomotor evolution in anthropoid primates has been limited to those taxa for which good postcranial fossil material and appropriate modern analogues are available. We report the results of an analysis of semicircular canal size variation in 16 fossil anthropoid species dating from the Late Eocene to the Late Miocene, and use these data(More)
Sivapithecus and Dryopithecus are well-described Miocene hominids (great apes and humans), both known since the 19th century. Over the years these genera have been combined into one (Dryopithecus) or separated up to the subfamily level. Each have been dismissed as interesting side branches, hailed as direct ancestors, or recognized as sister clades to one(More)
Dental arch reconstructions present as much of a challenge in paleoanthropology as in orthodontics and maxillo-facial surgery. Dentists and dental technicians know that it is very difficult to find the precise physiological crown positions that will yield individually correct occlusal kinematics in living individuals, and this difficulty is compounded by(More)
A small number of large hominoid specimens are known from the late Miocene of Turkey. (This paper focuses on the two specimens known until 1996. New fossils described by Alpagut et al. ([1996] Nature 382:349-351) are briefly discussed in this paper as well.) Among these, a fragmentary mandible is the type specimen of Ankarapithecus meteai. Another specimen,(More)