David R. Bangsberg

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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of oral antiretroviral therapy for use as preexposure prophylaxis among HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda. The(More)
BACKGROUND Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is being scaled up in developing countries. We compared baseline characteristics and outcomes during the first year of HAART between HIV-1-infected patients in low-income and high-income settings. METHODS 18 HAART programmes in Africa, Asia, and South America (low-income settings) and 12 HIV cohort(More)
CONTEXT Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a powerful predictor of survival for individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS. Concerns about incomplete adherence among patients living in poverty have been an important consideration in expanding the access to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE To evaluate(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between adherence, viral suppression and antiretroviral resistance in HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed people on protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. DESIGN AND SETTING A cross-sectional analysis of subjects in an observational prospective cohort systematically sampled from free meal lines, homeless shelters(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) medication is the greatest patient-enabled predictor of treatment success and mortality for those who have access to drugs. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine patient-reported barriers and facilitators to adhering to antiretroviral therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS We(More)
For antiretroviral therapy, the 95% adherence "threshold" is based on nucloside-exposed patients who are receiving partially suppressive, unboosted protease inhibitor regimens. Using unannounced pill counts and electronic medication monitoring, viral suppression is common with a 54%-100% mean adherence level to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor(More)
BACKGROUND Botswana has the highest rate of HIV infection in the world, estimated at 36% among the population aged 15-49 years. To improve antiretroviral (ARV) treatment delivery, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the social, cultural, and structural determinants of treatment adherence. METHODS We used both qualitative and quantitative research(More)
BACKGROUND The Botswana government recently implemented a policy of routine or "opt-out" HIV testing in response to the high prevalence of HIV infection, estimated at 37% of adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward routine(More)
Food insecurity, which affects >1 billion people worldwide, is inextricably linked to the HIV epidemic. We present a conceptual framework of the multiple pathways through which food insecurity and HIV/AIDS may be linked at the community, household, and individual levels. Whereas the mechanisms through which HIV/AIDS can cause food insecurity have been(More)