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We compared nucleotide usage pattern conservation for related prokaryotes by examining the representation of DNA tetranucleotide combinations in 27 representative microbial genomes. For each of the organisms studied, tetranucleotide usage departures from expectations (TUD) were shared between related organisms using both Markov chain analysis and a(More)
Viruses are the most abundant known infectious agents on the planet and are significant drivers of diversity in a variety of ecosystems. Although there have been numerous studies of viral communities, few have focused on viruses within the indigenous human microbiota. We analyzed 2 267 695 virome reads from viral particles and compared them with 263 516(More)
Virus taxonomy is based on morphologic characteristics, as there are no widely used non-phenotypic measures for comparison among virus families. We examined whether there is phylogenetic signal in virus nucleotide usage patterns that can be used to determine ancestral relationships. The well-studied model of tail morphology in bacteriophage classification(More)
The Helicobacter pylori genome includes a family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) with substantial N and C-terminal identity. To better understand their evolution, the nucleotide sequences for two members, babA and babB, were determined from a worldwide group of 23 strains. The geographic origin of each strain was found to be the major determinant of(More)
Since the associations between Helicobacter pylori genotype and disease differ in Asia and the West, we investigated the correlation between HP0638, encoding an outer membrane protein, and potential markers of virulence (cagA, vacA, and iceA). For 109 strains from nine countries, the status of cagA, vacA, and iceA was determined by PCR and/or a line probe(More)
Phylogenies of indigenous microbes have been used as surrogates for the origins of the hosts that carry them. Conversely, polymorphisms may be used to date the spread of a microbial species when information about their host populations is available. Therefore, we examined polymorphisms in Helicobacter pylori, which persistently colonize the human stomach,(More)
Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in(More)
Viruses may play an important role in the evolution of human microbial communities. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity to previously encountered viruses. Little is known about CRISPR composition in members of human microbial communities, the relative rate of CRISPR locus(More)
While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections(More)
The human oral cavity has an indigenous microbiota known to include a robust community of viruses. Very little is known about how oral viruses are spread throughout the environment or to which viruses individuals are exposed. We sought to determine whether shared living environment is associated with the composition of human oral viral communities by(More)