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New concepts related to approximating a Lipschitz function between Banach spaces by aane functions are introduced. Results which clarify when such approximations are possible are proved and in some cases a complete characterization of the spaces X, Y for which any Lipschitz function from X to Y can be so approximated is obtained. This is applied to the(More)
BACKGROUND Trials of statin therapy have had conflicting findings on the risk of development of diabetes mellitus in patients given statins. We aimed to establish by a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data whether any relation exists between statin use and development of diabetes. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central(More)
BACKGROUND Whether intensive control of glucose reduces macrovascular events and all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus is unclear. We undertook a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to determine whether intensive treatment is beneficial. METHODS We selected five prospective randomised controlled trials of 33 040(More)
CONTEXT A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that statin therapy is associated with excess risk of developing diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether intensive-dose statin therapy is associated with increased risk of new-onset diabetes compared with moderate-dose statin therapy. DATA SOURCES We identified relevant trials in a literature(More)
BACKGROUND High serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have been associated with increased risk of diabetes and with increased mortality, but associations of variations of ALT in the normal range with outcomes have been less well studied. METHODS We studied the relationship between ALT, mortality and cardiovascular events in the West of Scotland(More)
Let f be a Lipschitz mapping of a separable Banach space X to a Banach space Y. We observe that the set of points at which f is diierentiable in a spanning set of directions but not G^ ateaux diierentiable is-directionally porous. Since Borel-directionally porous sets, in addition to being rst category sets, are null in Aronszajn's (or, equivalently, in(More)
IMPORTANCE Muscle-related statin intolerance is reported by 5% to 20% of patients. OBJECTIVE To identify patients with muscle symptoms confirmed by statin rechallenge and compare lipid-lowering efficacy for 2 nonstatin therapies, ezetimibe and evolocumab. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Two-stage randomized clinical trial including 511 adult patients(More)
It is well-established that serum total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, low HDL-cholesterol and calculated indices such as total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio or less commonly used indices such as non-HDL cholesterol are strongly predictive of cardiovascular events. Serum triglycerides, by contrast, are only modestly associated with coronary heart disease(More)
This Review is intended to help clinicians, patients, and the public make informed decisions about statin therapy for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes. It explains how the evidence that is available from randomised controlled trials yields reliable information about both the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. In addition, it discusses how(More)
Anaesthesiologists have traditionally been consulted to help design breathing circuits to attain and maintain target end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO2). The methodology has recently been simplified by breathing circuits that sequentially deliver fresh gas (not containing carbon dioxide (CO2)) and reserve gas (containing CO2). Our aim was to determine the(More)