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'Depression 2000' is a major epidemiological study conducted in a representative sample of 412 primary care settings (which examined a total of 15,081 unselected patients) in Germany in order to address the current lack of information on the prevalence, recognition and treatment of depression in primary care. The study revealed that depression is a key(More)
BACKGROUND The mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system seems to play a crucial role in reinforcing effects of nicotine. Recently, acute high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of frontal brain regions has been shown to efficiently modulate the mesostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic system in both animals and humans. For this(More)
AIMS The non-benzodiazepine hypnotics zolpidem and zopiclone, which are indicated for short-term treatment of insomnia, were considered originally by physicians as almost devoid of abuse and dependence potential. Several recent publications, however, have suggested that both agents carry a significant risk of abuse. To substantiate and re-evaluate this(More)
Buprenorphine and methadone are the two established substitution drugs licensed in many countries for the treatment of opioid dependence. Little is known, however, about how these two drugs are applied and how they work in clinical practice. In this paper we present the aims, methods, design and sampling issues of a collaborative multi-stage epidemiological(More)
BACKGROUND Our aim was to assess the mortality and vascular morbidity risk of elderly individuals with asymptomatic versus symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) in the primary care setting. METHODS AND RESULTS This prospective cohort study included 6880 representative unselected patients >or=65 years of age with monitored follow-up over 5 years.(More)
Treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have considerably improved in the past few years. Endothelin (ET)-receptor antagonism has been established as a first-line option for the majority of PAH patients. Endothelin-receptor antagonists (ETRAs) comprise sulfonamide and non-sulfonamide agents with different affinities for ET-receptor(More)
BACKGROUND In contrast to surveys in cardiologist settings, presentation and management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in primary care patients is less well studied. METHODS AND RESULTS The prospective ATRIUM (Outpatient Registry Upon Morbidity of Atrial Fibrillation) collected data from patients with AF seen by 730 physicians representing a random sample of(More)
BACKGROUND Automated complexity-based statistical stroke risk analysis (SRA) of electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings can be used to estimate the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF). We investigated whether this method could improve the reliability of detection of patients at risk for pAF. METHODS AND RESULTS Data from 12-lead ECGs, 24-h Holter(More)
Antidepressants that selectively block serotonin uptake may cause unwanted effects on cognitive functions such as impairment of vigilance and memory. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial was performed to examine the effects of venlafaxine, a selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI), on cognitive functions(More)
BACKGROUND The ankle brachial index (ABI) is an efficient tool for objectively documenting the presence of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, different methods exist for ABI calculation, which might result in varying PAD prevalence estimates. To address this question, we compared five different methods of ABI calculation using(More)