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Cowpox virus effectively inhibits inflammatory responses against viral infection in the chick embryo. This study demonstrates that one of the viral genes necessary for this inhibition, the crmA gene (a cytokine response modifier gene), encodes a serpin that is a specific inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. This serpin can prevent the(More)
Supernatants from vaccinia virus (VV)-infected CV-1 cells were examined and found to contain a 33 kd protein capable of binding murine interleukin-1 beta (mIL-1 beta). A VV open reading frame (ORF) that exhibits 30% amino acid identity to the type II IL-1 receptor was expressed in CV-1-EBNA cells and shown specifically to bind mIL-1 beta. A similar ORF from(More)
We reported previously that human interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) is regulated by the CrmA serpin encoded by cowpox virus. We now report the mechanism and kinetics of this unusual inhibition of a cysteine proteinase by a member of the serpin superfamily previously thought to inhibit serine proteinase only. CrmA possesses several characteristics(More)
Cowpox virus Brighton red strain (CPV) contains a gene, crmD, which encodes a 320-aa tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) of 44% and 22% identity, respectively, to the CPV TNFR-like proteins, cytokine response modifiers (crm) CrmB and CrmC. The crmD gene was interrupted in three other cowpox strains examined and absent in various other orthopoxviruses;(More)
The Brighton Red (BR) strain of cowpox virus induces a flat, bright red pock on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the 12-day-old chick embryo. In contrast, mutants with a deleted 38K gene (which is located 31 to 32 kb from the right-hand end of the virus genome) induced a raised, white, and opaque pock. During the first 24-hr p.i., both CPV-BR and the(More)
Several recombinant cowpox viruses were constructed and used to identify a viral gene that controls the production of hemorrhage in lesions caused by the Brighton Red strain of cowpox virus (CPV-BR). This gene is located in the KpnD fragment of CPV-BR DNA, between 31 and 32 kilobases from the end of the genome. This position corresponds well with that(More)
We show the cowpox genome (Brighton Red strain) contains a single copy gene, crmC, expressed at late times during viral infection, encoding a soluble, secreted protein whose sequence marks it as a new member of the TNF receptor family. The cysteine-rich protein contains 186 amino acids, the N-terminal 21 of which constitute a signal peptide, and two(More)
Examination of the genomes of 10 white-pock variants of cowpox virus strain Brighton red (CPV-BR) revealed that 9 of them had lost 32 to 38 kilobase pairs (kbp) from their right-hand ends and that the deleted sequences had been replaced by inverted copies of regions from 21 to 50 kbp long from the left-hand end of the genome. These variants thus possess(More)
Cowpox virus (Brighton Red strain) possesses one of the largest genomes in the Orthopoxvirus genus. Sequence analysis of a region of the genome that is type-specific for cowpox virus identified a gene, vCD30, encoding a soluble, secreted protein that is the fifth member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family known to be encoded by cowpox virus. The(More)
Downregulation of MHC class I on the cell surface is an immune evasion mechanism shared by many DNA viruses, including cowpox virus. Previously, a cowpox virus protein, CPXV203, was shown to downregulate MHC class I. Here we report that CPXV12 is the only other MHC class I-regulating protein of cowpox virus and that it uses a mechanism distinct from that of(More)