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A major line of evidence that supports the hypothesis of dopamine overactivity in schizophrenia is the psychomimetic potential of agents such as amphetamine that stimulate dopamine outflow. A novel brain imaging method provides an indirect measure of in vivo synaptic dopamine concentration by quantifying the change in dopamine receptor radiotracer binding(More)
A rapidly growing body of preclinical data has implicated the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in memory and other cognitive processes. There is comparatively less information about this receptor system in human cognition. We examined the effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on two forms of(More)
OBJECTIVE Agents that antagonize the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor, such as phencyclidine and ketamine, produce an acute psychotic state in normal individuals that resembles some symptoms of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine which brain regions are involved in NMDA receptor-mediated psychosis. METHOD Positron emission(More)
The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We administered subanesthetic doses of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine in a double-blind, placebo–controlled design to 13 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients to investigate if schizophrenics will experience an exacerbation of psychotic symptoms(More)
Positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computer tomography receptor-binding ligands can be used to measure changes in neurotransmitter levels. In particular, amphetamine-induced dopamine release has been assessed with [11C]raclopride by paired bolus injections and with [123I]iodobenzamide by using a single bolus plus infusion (B/I) study.(More)
BACKGROUND The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, ketamine, produces a clinical syndrome of thought disorder, perceptual distortion, and cognitive impairment. METHODS We have administered ketamine to healthy volunteers to characterize the formal thought disorder and specific memory dysfunction associated with ketamine. Ten healthy volunteers(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is involved in the antipsychotic efficacy of the atypical antipsychotic agent clozapine. Clinical data on the interaction between clozapine's mechanism of action and NMDA receptor function have been lacking secondary to a paucity of pharmacologic probes of the NMDA(More)
Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia who met criteria for neuroleptic treatment resistance or intolerance participated in a crossover, placebo-controlled, double-blind comparison of long-term typical neuroleptic and clozapine treatment. Clozapine significantly reduced total as well as positive and negative symptoms in comparison with both fluphenazine and(More)
Agents that antagonize the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, such as phenylcyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, produce a behavioral state in healthy volunteers that resembles some aspects of schizophrenia. A dysfunction in NMDA-dopaminergic interactions has been proposed as a mechanism for these behavioral effects. In this study, we examined the(More)
Psychiatric symptoms and cognition were assessed in 13 patients with schizophrenia, one patient with schizoaffective disorder, and one patient with psychosis not otherwise specified while they received a conventional neuroleptic and again after an average of 15 months on clozapine. Despite improvements in psychiatric symptoms, attention, memory, and(More)